Rules for the Italian tongue.

Of Si.

BE your Maieſtie pleaſed, I humbly entreate you, if I be ſomewhat tedious about this Particle Si. which to all ſtrangers ſeemeth a Particle ſo doubtfull and vncertaine, that moſt are therewith puzled, yea and Italians themſelues are to ſeeke how to expreſſe it, or how to giue rules for it. For I could neuer yet ſee the Grammar that did giue me ſatisfaction, or that did in any ſort ſhow the true vſe of it, or the diuers ſignifications it hath, as your Highneſſe may perceiue, if you compare their rules vnto mine. For if you duely conſider it, eyther in writing or ſpeaking, and withall examine the thing written or ſpoken of, there is no part of ſpeech more certaine, more regular, and more ornamentall, although it ſometimes ſeeme to contrary it ſelfe, eſpecially if it be ioyned vnto Verbes (as it is very often) and makes the Verbe to which it is affixed to be ſometimes directly Actiue or Tranſitiue, and other times Paſsiue or Recprocall, as indeede it is: and fauour me I beſeech you, with the patience to conſider theſe few rules, you ſhall finde it very eaſie and certaine, both how to be vnderſtood, and how to be vſed.

Sì. is often an Adverbe of ſwearing or affirmation, yea, yes yea marry as thus, Sì in verità, yes in truth. Signor sì. yes Sir. Sì veraménte. yes forſooth &c. and then is it euer accented.

Si. ſerueth often for an Aduerbe of ſimilitude or compariſon in ſtead of Così, in Engliſh So, As, or Thus, as for example, Huómo sì cortéle, sì nóbile, e sì gentíle non víddi mái, A man ſó courteous, ſo noble, and thus gentle, did I neuer ſee. &c. and ſhould euer be accented.

. is ſometimes an Aduerbe of quantity, comparatiuely, or relatiuely ſpoken, in liew of Tánto, or Quánto, in Engliſh As much, As well, So well, So much, hauing euer relation vnto Cóme or Quánto, as thus, Sì lui cóme vn'altro, As much or as well he as another. Sì bene per il mio intereſſe quánto per il vóſtro, As well, or as much for mine intereſſe as for yours. Or elſe it may be placed before Per, or Perche, or Per tánto, or Per quánto as thus, Sì per amór vóſtro, cóme per ſúo, as much or as well for your ſake as for his. Sì perchè ti ámo, quánto perche tù ſei vertuóſo, As well becauſe I loue thee, as becauſe thou art vertuous, &c. and ſhould euer be accented.

. hath beene vſed for a Coniunction of continuing ſenſe or yeelding reaſon, in place of Nondiméno, yet or neuertheleſſe, as thus, Se áltro non mi vì facéſſe volér béne, Si vi vóglio béne, perchè lo meritate, If nothing elſe ſhould make me to wiſh you well, yet or neuertheleſſe I will loue you becauſe you deſerue it, &c.

. hath beene vſed for the Prepoſition Insíno, vntill, as thus; Nón ſi riténne di córrere sí fù a cáſa di lui, he ſtaide not his running vntill he came to his houſe, &c.

. hath beene vſed ſometimes for an ornament, as thus, Andò et ſi gli aperſe, et ſi gli diſſe, &c.

. being ioyned or affixed vnto the third perſon of any verbe, be it ſingular or plurall, or to any Infinitiue moode, or to any Geronde, or to any Participle, as it is moſt often, and that both before and after them, your Maieſty ought diligently to conſider and obſerue whether, , hath reference and relation vnto perſons animated, or creatures hauing life, namely men or women, or otherwiſe vnto creatures or things dead, and hauing no life, as alſo vnto actions of men or women, or as a man may ſay, whether in ſpeech or writing the partie be ment and vnderſtood himſelfe, or whether but his action, and any dead thing elſe; for to ſome one of thoſe two muſt euery verbe ſpoken, read or written neceſſarily haue relation, and of one of the two al meane and vnderstand. If haue relation and reference vnto perſons animated and hauing or hauing had life, you ſhall aſſuredly finde the Verbe to which . is affixed, to be of the Actiue or Tranſitiue ſignification, and . to be a Pronoune Primitiue, or as ſome ſay, deriuatiue, both of the singular and plurall number, both of the Maſculine and Feminine gender, and but of the Datiue or of the Accuſatiue caſes, ſignifying To him, to herſelfe, to themſelues, Him, her, themſelues, as alſo ſometimes, one another, as for example, Lui ſi dà a crédere d'eſſer ſáuio, e ſi ſtíma eſſer' huómo da béne, et non ſi rauéde de ſuói erróri, di che ſi douerebbe vergognáre conoſcendoſi. That is in Engliſh, He giueth himſelfe to beleeue that he is wiſe, and thinketh himſelfe to be an honeſt man, and himſelfe perceiueth not his owne faults, whereof he ſhould be aſhamed himſelfe, knowing himſelfe. Or thus: Lóro ſi pénſano eſſer ſauij, mà ſi ingánnano, They thinke themſelues wiſe men, but they deceiue themſelues. Or thus: Luì ſi e fátto mále, penſándoſi di farſi béne, He hath done hurt to himſelfe, thinking to doe himſelfe good. Or thus: Lóro ſi dánno a crédere d'eſſerſi feríti, They perſwade themſelues that they haue hurt themſelues, or to haue hurt one another; for in the ſenſe of One another it is often found. Here remember alſo (as I haue before touched) that . being affixed vnto verbs of priuation, and ſpeaking of perſons animated, it may be of the Ablatiue caſe, as thus, Lui ſi e cauáto la máſchera, He hath pulled the maske or vizard from himſelffe. Or thus: Lóro ſi ſóno leuáta la libertà, They haue taken liberty from themſelues, &c.

Secondly, if , be ioyned or affixed to any verbe, hauing relation to any dead or liueleſſe thing, or to any action performed, be ſure that it is a ſigne or inference of a paſsiue ſignification, which in Engliſh is expreſſed with theſe ſignes, It is, Men, Are, They, The world, Be it, or To be, namely with Infinitiues, as for example, Si díce chè le cattíue cóſe non ſi ſtímano, It is ſaid that euill things are not eſteemed. Or thus: Mólte cóſe ſi ſánno, che non ſi conuengono, Many things are done that are not conuenient, &c. And ſo you may vnderſtand it being ioyned vnto the third perſons, eyther ſingular or plurall, of all the tences throughout the Verbe, as alſo with any Infinitiue mood, as thus, Quéſto debbe fárſi, this thing is to be done, &c. Or with a Participle, as thus, Fáttoſi nótte ſi ſéce ánco oſcúro, Night being made, darkeneſſe was alſo made, &c.

Note alſo as a ſpeciall thing, that if there be two or more verbes in a ſentence, and that one of them be an Infinitiue, although they be farre aſunder, and that S. be ioyned to any one, yet must it ſtill gouerne the Infinitiue paſsiuely, as thus, Si può manifeſtaménte vedére, che gli huómini ſi póſſono ingannáre, It may manifestly be ſeene, that men may eaſily be deceiued, &c.

Next Section: Of Ne.
Previous Section: Of the pronounes deriuatiues, or as ſome call them Affixes, Adiuncts, or Particles. . ..