Rules for the Italian tongue.

Of the true use of these Articles.

Note that Il and I are commonly and ought to be vſed before nounes or words that begin with conſonants, as Il béne, Il dólce, Il mále, Il líbro, Il Préncipe, Il Re, &c. I béni, I dólci, I máli, I líbri, I Préncipi, I Re, &c.

Note that L, and Gli, are or els ought euer to be vſed before nounes or words beginning with vowels, and are commonly by the beſt Speakers or Writers apoſtrophed, and pronounced together as they were but one word, as L'abbáte, L'altáre, L'Angelo, L'amóre, L'ódio, &c. gl'abbáti, gl'altári, gl'Angeli, gl'amóri, gl'ódij, &c.

Note that forſmuch as good Italians ſhun as a thing most harſh among them, to haue or vſe many conſonants together, namely aboue two, ſeldome three, and neuer foure; and that there be diuers words of the Maſculine gender that begin with S., and one or more conſonants follow the ſame, as Spírito, Strále, Stráccio, Stromento, &c. Before ſuch words they will not, according to the foreſaid rule, vſe the articles Il and I, but will ſay and write, as being more pleaſing in pronouncing, and to the eare, lo Spírite, lo Stráccio, lo Strále, lo Strómento, gli Spíriti, gli Stráccij, gli Stráli, gli Strómenti, &c.

Note that the article Li is and may indifferently be vſed before conſonants or vowels, as Li árbori, li cittacíni, li quáli, &c. and I am of opinion that were it not that ſome ancient Writers haue vſed the ſame, moderne writers would not much vſe it.

Note that La, and Le, before vowels are vſually apoſtrophed and pronounced as one word, whereas before conſonants they are written and pronounced ſeuerally: as for example, L'ácqua, l'ánima, l'altézza, l'ácque, l'ánime, l'altézze &c. La bálla, la Cárne, la fáccia, la ménte, la terre, &c.; Le bálle, le Carni, le fáccie, le ménti, le terre, &c.

Note that the foreſaid particles are not euer or properly articles, except they be ioyned vnto abſolute nounes, whether ſubſtantiues, adiectiues, or proper: for if they be affixed vnto verbes (as they are very often) they change their property, and become pronounes deriuatiues from the primatiues, or elſe demonſtratiues of the Datiue and Accuſatiue caſes, as for example; lo gli diédi, I gave him: Io il víddi, I ſaw him; Tù lo conóſci, thou knoweſt him: Tù i Sénti, thou hearest them, Tù la tócchi, thou toucheſt him: Tù le fai mále, thou doſt him hurt: and with verbes of priuation, as hereafter ſhall be better declared, Gli, and li, and le become of the Ablatiue caſe: as for example; Tù gli rubáſti, thou stoleſt from him or them. Tu li tolléſti, thou tookeſt from him or them: Tu la furásti, thou stolest from her.

Note alſo that theſe two Articles La and Li are ſometimes aduerbes of place, ſignifying There, or in that place, and then they are commonly accented, as , and .

Note that to the articles are diuers times affixed theſe prepoſitions, as Di of the Genitiue caſe, A of the Datiue, and Da of the Ablatiue; which ſo ioyned, make of the Genitiue Del, Dell', Déi, De', Déllo, Dégli, Délli, Délla, Delle, and of the Datiue Al, All', Ai, A', Allo, Agli, Alli, Alla, Alle, and of the Ablatiue Dál, Dáll', Dái, Da', Dállo, Dágli, Dállí, Dálla, Dálle; which ſometimes are in the Italian tongue diuerſly vſed, and loſe their ordinary ſignifications: as for example; thoſe of the Genitiue caſe become ſometimes the ſigne of a compariſon, in Engliſh, Then, or Then the, namely after the Aduerbs of quantity, Più or Méno, as thus: Tù Sei più dótto di mè, mà nón già déll' amíco nóſtro. Othertimes following a verbe and being before a noune ſubstantiue, whoſe quality may be diuiſible, they become Adverbs of quantity and ſignifie Some, or part of, as thus, Dámmi dél páne e dél víno, et io tì darò délla cárne, dégl'óſſi, e dél péſce.

Note that Alla, being placed before any noune adjectiue, it makes the ſame an aduerbe of ſimilitude; like vnto, or after the faſhion of, as thus, Io procédo álla reále, I proceed like vnto an honeſt man, or honeſt-man-like. Or thus, Lui párla all' Italiána, veſte alla Francéſe, béue álla Todéſca, &c. He ſpeaketh after the Italian faſhion, clotheth after the French, and drinkes after the Dutch manner, &c.

And euen ſo doth Da, being placed before a noune ſubſtantive, as thus, Io procédo da huómo da béne, tù veſti da capitáno, párli da Dottóre, e fái da poltróne.

Note that all the Datiue caſes A, Al, All', Allo, Alla, Ai, A', Agli, Alli, Alle, as alſo all theſe Articles, Affixes, or Pronounes deriuatiues, Mi, Ti, Si, Ci, Vi, Me, Te, Se, Ce, Ve, Ne, which are of the Datiue caſe, if any of them be affixed to any verbes of priuation, as Aſcóndere, Furáre, Rubbáre, Tógliere, &c. contrary to all rules (and which was yet neuer noted in any Grammar that I have ſeene) they all become of the Ablatiue caſe, and with no other verbes, as thus, Io hò leuáte le fórze a', or, alli miéi amíci, Tù mi d'aſcóndi, Tù ci hai furáti i noſtri libri; Dio vittorà i vóſtri piacéri, vói ne hauéte tólto il nóſtro ripóſo. I peccatóri non ſi póſſono naſcóndere á Dío, &c. which be meere Italianiſmes.

Note alſo that the Prepoſition of the Ablatiue caſe Da. whether alone or ioyned to any Article, as Dál, Dai, Dállo, Dágli, Dálli, Dálla, Dálle, comming after any of theſe verbes of motion, Andáre, Córrere, Fuggíre, Veníre, &c. ſo that the party or perſons to whom you goe, runne, flie, or come, be named or mentioned, contrary to all rules giuen in Grammars, they become of the Datiue caſe. As for example, Andándo dal Signór Páolo, Córſi dálla Signóra María, volendo fuggíre dalle Signóri Thomaſo ed Andrea, vénni dal Signór Henrico, &c.,

Note alſo that the Prepoſition of the Ablatiue caſe Da, comming before any Noune numerall or number, it ſerueth for the Prepoſition, Círca or Intórno, in Engliſh About, as thus. E'rano da venti ſoldáti. They were about twenti ſouldiers. Io vi trouái da dieci huómini da béne. There I found about ten honest men, &c.

Note alſo that Da, or Da' are likewiſe often vſed for an Aduerbe of exception, ſauing or except: but then the thing excepted muſt immediately follow Da, and Infuóri or in pói, must ſucceede the ſame, as Io truóuo mólte cóſe da denári infuóri. Tutti ſóno huómini da béne da' furbi in pói, &c.

Note that theſe Prepoſitions, Con, Per, In, Nón, are often ioyned vnto Articles, and made as one word or ſillable, as for Con il. Con i. Con lo. Con gli. Con la. Con le. the Italians will ſay and write Col tempo. Coi líbri. Co' fratelli. Coll' amóre. Cogl' ódij. Cólla mádre. Cólle ſorelle, &c. in Engliſh, with or with the.

In ſteede of, Per il. Per i. Per lo. Per gli. Per li. Per la. Per le. They say and write. Pel. Pei. Pe'. Pello. Pegli. Pelli. Pella. Pelle. For, Through, or by the.

In ſteede of, In il. In i. In lo. In gli. In li. In la. In lé. They ſay and write. Nél. Nei. Ne'. Néllo. Négli. Nélli, Nélla, Nélle. In Engliſh In, Into, or in the.

In ſteede of, Non il. Non i. Non lo. Non gli. Non li. Non la. Non le. They ſay and write. Nol. Noi. No'. Nóllo. Nógli. Nólli. Nólla. Nólle. In Engliſh, Not the, not him, not her, or not them, &c. Let this ſuffice for the Articles and the vſe of them.

Next Section: Of Nounes in generall, namely of Subſtantiues, and of the vſe of them.
Previous Section: Of the Articles of the Italian tongue, and of the frequent vſe of them.