Rules for the Italian tongue.

Of Ne.

THE reaſon why ſo few can directly vnderſtand, or truely make vſe in ſpeaking or writing of this Participle Ne, which in the Italian tongue is ſo often and ſo gracefully vſed, proceedeth of this, that as yet (as farre as I haue ſeene) none did euer ſhew directly, or rightly ſet down the eſſentiall proprietie, the certaine and diſtinct ſignifications, and the vndoubted vſe thereof, amuſing the learner and ſtranger, with ſaying that it is but an ornament and affected grace of the tongue, and that it might well, or for the moſt part be ſpared; when if your Maieſty rightly examine the ſame, you ſhall finde it to be a moſt neceſſary, a most gracefull, and moſt ſignificant part of ſpeech: yea, and ſo ſignificant, ſo gracefull, and ſo neceſſary, as the Italian tongue is lame, harſh, imperfect and graceleſſe without it. I haue therefore as briefly as I could ſet downe the ſeuerall ſignifications, and direct vſes thereof, and what it doth import, or may ſignifie, and without the compaſſe of which I could yet neuer heare, reade, or finde it. Remember therefore that Ne hath onely fiue ſeuerall ſignifications, and more it cannot haue.

Firſt , is ſometimes an Aduerbe of diſtinction, or as ſome count it, of deniall or refuſall, and is commonly accented, and without a verb, and in the beginning of a ſentence, or immediately after a Comma, ſignifying in Engliſh, Nor, or Neither, as thus, Nè ti ſóno amíco, nè ánco lo vóglio eſtere, per chè, nè tù lo meriti' nè ſe nè contenterebboroi miei amíci. I neither am thy friend, nor will I be, becauſe neither doſt thou deſerue it, nor would my friends be therewith contented. Or thus, Nè quéſto, ne quéllo ti concedo, imperochè, nè mi ámi, nè mi puói vedére. Nor this, nor that doe I graunt to thee, for thou doſt neither loue me, nor canst abide to ſee me, &c.

Secondly, , is ſometimes an Aduerbe local or of place, or as ſome cal it, a Prepoſition, importing In, In the, or Into, but then is the Article I. included, and ſomtimes apoſtroped, and ſomtimes not, as thus, Spaſſeggiándo ne' cámpi, m'imbattéi ne' miei nemíci, walking in the fields, I chanced to fal into mine enemies. Or thus, Trouándomi ne' cámpi, finding my ſelfe in the fieldes. Or thus, Leggendo ne' libri, reading in the bookes. Or thus, Ne' ſauij ſi truóuano buóni conſíglij, in wiſe men are good counſels found, &c.

Thirdly, Ne, being ioyned to a verbe of motion, as Andáre, Fuggire, Voláre, Veníre, &c. is ſometimes an Aduerbe locall or of place, ſignifying in Engliſh Thence, Hence, or Away, as Lui ſe ne e andáto, He is gone away. Io me ne vádo, I goe hence. Io me ne vóglio fuggíre, I will runne away or flie hence. Lui ſe ne e fuggito, He is fled away thence or hence. Volándoſene via, Flying thence away. Venitéuene, Come away thence, &c.

Fourthly, Ne. ſerueth ſometimes for the Pronoune primitiue, Noi, Vs, being euer of the Datiue or Accuſatiue caſes, except with verbes of priuation, with which it is of the Ablatiue. As for example, Vendendone giuocáre lui ne diede denári, Seeing vs play he gaue vs money. Incontrándone lui ne diede il buón giórno, Meeting vs, he bade vs good morrow, with priuatiue verbes, let this example ſerue. Lui ne hà tólto il nóſtro ripóſo, furátonei nóſtri denári, ed aſcóſtone i nóſtri béni, He hath taken from vs our reſt, ſtolne our money from vs, and hidden our goods from vs.

Fiftly and laſtly, Ne. being ioyned with a verbe doth most often and most commonly ſerue for an Aduerbe of quantity, or relation, ſignifying in Engliſh, Some, Of it, Any, Part of, Thereof, Of them, and ſometimes, Therewith, hauing euer relation vnto the chiefe ſubſtantiue, mentioned, ſpoken of, or glanced at in the ſentence, as being reciprocall vnto it, and is most elegantly and gracefully ſo often vſed of all the best Italians, to auoide that harſhneſſe or trouble of often iterating the ſame vpon euery occaſion, and in continuance of the ſenſe, as for example. Di grátia Signór mio ſe hauére denári fátemene párte, Signóre Io non ne hò, ſe ne hauéſſi, ve ne farei párte, quándo ne hauerò, ne potréte diſpórre, mi diſpiáce non hauérne, viſto chè tánti ne hánno, chè non ne ſóno degni, &c. which in Engliſh is thus. Of courteſie Sir if you haue any money, lend me ſome. Sir I haue none, if I had any you ſhould haue part thereof, when I ſhall haue ſome, you may dispoſe of it. I am sorry I haue not any, ſeeing ſo many haue ſome that are not worthy of it, &c. much more might be ſaid of the vſe thereof, but I thinke this ſufficient. Now let vs come vnto the verbes.

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