Rules for the Italian tongue.

Of the Pronounes deriuatiues, or as ſome cal them Affixes, Adiuncts, or Particles; Mi, Ti, Si, Ci, Vi, Me, Te, Se, Ce, Ve, Ne, Mo, Ma, To, Ta, So, which are ſo frequent in vſe, and ſuch an ornament or grace in the Italian tongue, which becauſe they are ſomewhat difficile, I will ſay ſomething of them.

THe aboue written Deriuatiues, Affixes, Adiuncts or Particles are very worthy of great conſideration for the true vſe of them, which few Engliſh attaine vnto, though they haue beene in Italy, and becauſe none that euer I ſaw hath yet truely written of them; therefore pardon me, I beſeech your Royal Maieſtie, if I ſeeme ſomewhat tedious or curious in them. They are commonly ioyned vnto Verbes, and are euer of the Datiue or Accuſatiue caſes, except verbs of Priuation, when they are of the Ablatiue, as before hath been touched: as for example, Lui mi diede. Egli mi díſſe. Ei mi conóbbe et ſúbito mi préſe. Io ti díco e ti móſtro. e ti véggo, e ti conóſco. Egli ſi dà ad intendere di ſcuſárſi, e s'accúſa de ſe ſtéſſo. Lóro ſi dánno a crédere di non monſtráſi pázzi (Of Si, more ſhall be ſaid in this preſent Diſcourſe). Lui ci diede denári vedendone gìuocáre. Dio vi hà dáta la ſúa gratia acciò vi pentiáte, &c. Here remember that Ci, and Vi, are often Aduerbes of place or locall ſignifying Here and There, as thus, Se io ci ſóno, non ci voglio eſſere. Io non vi andái per non trouárui l'amíco che promiſe di eſſerui, &c.

Note that Mi, Ti, Si, Ci, Vi, may often be changed into Me, Te, Se, Ce, Ve, and yet are euer of one ſame ſignification, the I. of which is neuer changed into E. but when any of them are ioyned or affixed vnto ſome one of theſe Articles, Il. I. Lo. Gli. La. Le. or Ne. being an Aduerbe, and then are the Affixes of the Datiue caſe, and the Articles of the Accuſatiue caſes, as thus, Lúi me lo moſtrò. Io te lo diedi. Io te ne parlái. Egli ſe la béue. Eſſi ſe le mangiórono ſénza pentírſene. Lóro ce ne hánno parláto. et ce lo ſignificórono. Io ce lo víddi. Lui ce ne diede. et ce ne féce parte. Io ve lo trouái. Di grátia non ve ne Scordáte. Non vogliáte cercárveli ſe non ve ne voléte pentíre, &c.

Note alſo that all theſe aboue written Particles Mi. Ti. Si. Ci. Vi. Me. Te. Se. Ve. Ne. Lo. La. and Le. may indifferently be vſed and placed eyther before or after Verbes, at the pleaſure of the ſpeaker or writer, as for example in the Datiue caſe, Mi piáce. Piácemi. Ti gióua Gióuati. Si compiáce. Compiáceſi. Ci diletta Dilettaci. Vi piáce. Piáceui. Si compiáciono. Compiácionſi. And Accuſitiuely. Mi vidde. Viddemi. Ti accúſa. Accúſati. Si móſtra. Móſtraſi. Ci áma. Amaci. Vi truóua. Truóuaui

But remember that if the Verbe haue an accent ouer the laſt vowell, as Moſtrerò, Donò, Dirà, Farà, Starà, , E', and that you will place the Particle after the verbe (as you may at your pleaſure), the conſonant of them ought euer to bee doubled, whereas before the Verbe it ought to be ſingle, as for example, Ti moſtrerò, Moſtrerótti, Mi donò, Donómmi, Si dirà, Diráſſi, Si farà, Faráſſi, Ci dà, Dácci, Ci e del béne? Ecci del béne, Vi farò vedére, Faróuui vedére, Ve ne e daúanzo, E'uuene pur tróppo. Le donò il cuóre. Donólle il cuóre, Se ne andò. Andóſſene vía. Si trouò fuóri. Trouóſſi fuori. Le trouò che dormíuano. Trouólle che dormiuano. Ne dà. Dánne. Ne fà. Fánne, &c. Note withall that none of theſe Particles ſhould be vſed before any Infinitiue mood, Gerond or Participle (an error wherein many Engliſh men fall very often) as Mifáre, Ti díre, Si monſtrando, Si dicendo, Si pentíto, Si trouáto, Cifáre, Citrouáre, Vi facendo. Vi parlando, Ne vedendo, Ne trouándo, &c. but you muſt euer ſay Fármi, Dírti, Fárci, Trouárci, euer loſing the laſt vowell of the Infinitiue. Dicendoſi, Facendoſi, Pentítoſi, Trouátoſi, Facendoui, Parlándovsi, Vedendone, Trouándone, &c.

It is not amiſſe if you note that Se is ſometimes an Aduerbe of doubt, as thus, Se if, Se púre if ſo be that, Se però if yet as, Se tu ámi Dio if thou loue Gode, &c.

Note alſo that theſe Affixes, or Participles are ſometimes vſed among good Italians for an ornament or grace of the ſpeech rather then for neceſsity, and ioyning many times two or three together, as for example, Egli ſi créde, He belieueth himſelfe, or to himſelfe. Tù ti pénſi, Thou thinkeſt thy ſelfe, or to thy ſelfe. Io mi ti raccomándo, I recommend my ſelfe vnto thee. Tù mi ti moſtráſti amoréuole, Thou didſt ſhow thy ſelfe kinde vnto me. Egli mi fi proferì da sè, He of himſelfe offered himſelfe to me. Io mi ci fermái, I myſelfe ſtaide there. Tù ti ci facéſti incóntro, Thou madest thy ſelfe against vs. In which gracefull, elegant, and ornamentall ſpeeches, they ought euer to end in I. and not in E. yet may they end in both after L. or R. as for example: Cálmi. Cálme. Válmi. Válme. Dármi. Dárme. Pármi. Párme. &c.

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