Rules for the Italian tongue.

Of Nounes in generall, namely of Subſtantiues, and of the vſe of them.

A Noune is properly any thing of Eſſence or Subſtance, which may either be touched, ſeene, or imagined, as A'rbore, Córno, Fióre, Sáffo, &c. Sóle, Lúna, Cielo, Stélla, &c. Dío, Anima, Speránza, Paradíſo, &c.

Note that all Italian Nounes, both Subſtantiues, Adiectiues, and Proper, be either of the Maſculine or Feminine genders, and that most of them be either meerely Latine, or deriued of the Latine. Thoſe that be Latine, haue only the Ablatiue caſe ſingular of the ſame, which ſerueth for all caſes ſingular of the Italian, and only the Articles diſtinguiſh both genders and numbers; ſo that whoſoeuer knowes the Articles perfectly, and learneth to decline but one Noune, ſhall thereby know how to decline all. I will not therefore be tedious.

Note that all Maſculine Nounes in the ſingular number, end and terminate either in O. or in E. or in A. and all in I. in the Plurall, except ſome few heteroclites, whereof ſhall be ſpoken hereafter, as for example. Il Caſtello, Il Cielo, Il líbro, Il tempo, L'ódio, L'orgóglio, &c. I caſtelli, I cieli, I líbri, I tempi, Gl'ódij, gl'orgógli, &c. Il fiúme, Il nóme, Il pádre, Il ſángue, Il túrbine, &c. I fiúmi, I nómi, I pádri, I ſángui, I túrbini, &c. Il Dúca, Il Poeta, Il Profeta, l'Euangelíſta, &c. I Dúchi, I Poeti, I Propheti, Gl'Euangeliſti, &c.

Note that most of Italian Feminine nounes end in the ſingular either in A. or in E. if in A. then in E. in the plurall. As for example, La bálla. la cárta. la terra. la táuola, &c. Le bálle. le cárte. le terre. le táuole. &c. L'ácqua. L'ánima. L'ácque. L'ánime. &c. And if in E. in the ſingular, then in I. in the plurall, as for example, La conſuetúdine. La mádre. La ménte. La ſalúte. &c. Le conſuetúdini. Le mádri. Le ménti. Le ſalúti. &c. L'occaſióne. L'occaſióni. One only Feminine noune endeth in O. that is, La máno, which in the plurall endeth in I. as Le máni.

Note that all Feminine nounes that in their Ablatiue caſe ſingular of the Latin end in A'te, or V'te. The Italians (namely in proſe) reiect and looſe the laſt fillable , and take the reſt, euer placing an accent ouer the laſt A. or V. making Singular and Plurall all one, which they diſtinguiſh by the Articles, or by the Adiectiues, or by the Pronounes ioyned vnto them, as for example, La Città. La qualità. La quantità. La realità. &c. La giouentù. La ſeruitù. La vertù. &c. Le giouentù. Le ſeruitù. Le vertù. &c. Yet obſerue that Poets may, and doe often dispence with this rule: for at their pleaſure they may vſe both, yea and often change Te into De, as for example. La città. la cittáte. la cittáde. La qualità. la qualitáte. la qualitáde. La vertù. la vertúte. la vertúde. &c. Le città. le cittáti. le cittádi. Le qualità. le qualitáti. la qualitádi. Le vertù. le vertúti. le vertúdi. &c.

Note that all Italian Feminine nounes that end in A'ntia or E'ntia, may at the pleaſure of the ſpeaker or writer, end in Anza or Enza, and Tuſcans count the latter the best, as thus, Abondántia. Abondánza. Vigilántia, Vigilánza, &c. Diligentia, Diligenza, Patientia, Patienza, &c.

Note that all Italian Maſculine Nounes, that in the ſingular end in Io. whereof there are many, ſhould in the plurall end in ij. as for example. Eſsercítio, O'dio, O'tio, Tempio, Vítio, Eſsercítij, O'dij, O'tij, Tempij, Vitij, &c.

Note that most of thoſe Latine Nounes that in their Ablatiue caſe ſingular end in Ine. as Flúmine, Nómine, Sánguine, the Italians looſe and reiect that ſillable Ne, and changing the I. into E. they ſay. Fiúme, Nóme., Sángue, excepting Hómine, whereof they frame Huómo in the ſingular, and Huómini in the plurall, yet vſe they to ſay, Fúlmine, Túrbine, Fúlmini, Túrbini.

Note that adding an Article of the Maſculine gender to any Infinitiue moode, the ſame becommeth a Noune ſubſtantiue, a thing much vſed among the Italians, as alſo by putting a Pronoune demonſtratiue before them, as thus. Il mio deſcináre non mi cósta núlla. Il dormíre di giórno non e fáno. L'amáre il móndo non piáce a Dio. Quéſto tánto ſtudiáre non vi gióua. Quéſto vóstro leggere vi darà nóia. Quéllo Córrere in frétta fà cadére, &c.

Note that the Italians haue a certaine liberty in framing Subſtantiues or rather Nicknames, according to their diuers humours or capriccios, a thing much vſed among them: and that is, by taking the third perſon ſingular of the Preſent tence of the Indicatiue moode of any verbe of the firſt Coniugation, or elſe the ſecond perſon ſingular of the ſame Tence and Moode of all Verbs of the ſecond, third, and fourth Coniugations, and putting any ſubſtantiue noune to the ſame, as for example. Vn Caua-denti, a Tooth-drawer. Vn Spázza-camíno, a Chimney-sweeper. Vn Vendi-légna, a wood-ſeller, Vn Sórbi-bródo, a Broth-ſupper, &c.

Note that in Nounes of Trees and Fruits in the Italian tongue, the trees ſhould euer be of the Maſculine gender, and the fruits of the Feminine. As for example, Caſtágno, a Cheſſe-nut-tree, Caſtágna, a Cheſſe-nut, Mándorlo, an Almond-tree, Mándorla, an Almond, Péro, a Peare-tree, Péra, a Peare, Pómo, an Apple-tree, Póma, an Apple, Perſico, a Peach-tree, Perſica, a Peach, Prúno, a Plum-tree, Prúna, a Plum, &c.

Note that taking the name of any manuall thing or wrought by hand, ſo it be euer made to end in A. as Bottóne, Bótte, Capello, Guánto, Líbro, Candéla, Cárta, Sella, Spáda, &c. and ioyning Ro. or Io. vnto it, you make ſubſtantiuely the profeſſor or workeman of that trade, as thus. Bottonáto, Bottonáio, Bottáro, Bottáio, Capelláro, Capelláio, Guantáro, Guantáio, Libráto, Libráio, Candeláto, Candeláio, Cartáro, Cartáio, Selláro, Selláio, Spadáro, Spadáio.

Note that taking the Participle of any verbe actiue, and putting Re. vnto the ſame, you make a ſubſtantiue that expreſſeth the actor of that verbe, as thus. Balláto, Danced, Ballatóre, a Dancer, Amáto, Loued, Amatóre, a Louer, Cantáto, Sung, Cantatóre, a Singer, Gouernáto, Gouerned, Gouernatóre, a Gouernour, Letto, Read, Lettóre a Reader, Scítto, Written, Scrittóre, a Writer, Vdíto, Heard, Vditóre, a Hearer, &c. All which you may make of the Feminine gender by changing, Tóre into Tríce, as thus. Amatríce, Ballatríce, Cantatríce, Gouernatríce, Lettríce, Scrittríce, Vditríce, &c.

Note that ſome late good writers haue quaintly vſed to conuert Adiectiues into Subſtantiues, which being diſcreetly placed ſome deeme it a very elegant Italianiſme, and that is by adding an Article to any Adiectiue, namely the Maſ. gender, and Sing. number. As for example, Cól púro dél cuóre, con il cándido dèll ánimo, et con il víuo déll' afletto, lo ámo il ſincero délle voſtro vertù, il dólce del vóſtro procédere, mà non il dúro délla vóſtra rigidézza, &c.

Note that the Italians haue but foure Subſtantiues of one ſillable, that is to ſay, Piè, , , and Grù, deriued of Piede, a Foote; of Rége, a King; of Féde, Faith, and of Grúe, a Crane. The firſt two are of the Maſ. and the other two of the Fem. gender, and ſerue for both numbers, and are euer accented.

Note that taking the name of manageable thing, ſo you make it of the Feminine gender ending in A. and ioyning Ta. vnto it, you may elegantly expreſſe ſubſtantiuely the power, effect, or blow of the ſame, as this Arco, a Bow; Arcáta, a Blow, or effect of a bow. Baſtóne, Baſtonáta, Coltello, Coltelláta, Palétta, Palettáta, Pugnále, Pugnaláta, Sáſſo, Saſſáta, &c.

Note that for as much as the Italians vnto certaine Nounes ſubſtantiues of the Maſculine gender, beſides their owne and proper plurall, they giue them another, which in ſound and writing ſeemeth to be of the Feminine gender and ſingular number ending in A. and yet hath the Artile, the Pronoune, or Adiectiue, that must gouerne the ſame of the Femine gender and Plurall number, which they call heteroclites: and becauſe this Feminine plurall is deemed to be the most elegant, and that there be but ſome few of them, I haue therefore ſet downe here as many as I could remember, as followeth alphabetically.

Il Bráccio. I Bráccij. Le Bráccia.
Il Budello. I Budelli. Le Budella.
Il Calcágno. I Calcágni. Le Calcágna.
Il Cárro. I Cárri. Le Cárra.
Il Caſtello. I Caſtelli. Le Caſtella.
Il Ceruello. I Ceruelli. Le Ceruella.
Il Cíglio. I Cíglij. Le Cíglia.
Il Córno. I Córni. Le Córna.
Il Díto. I Díti. Le Díta.
Il Fíco. I Fíchi. Le Fíca.
Il Fílo. I Fíli. Le Fila.
Il Fondaménto. I Fondaménti. Le Fondaménta.
Il Frútto. I Frútti. Le Frútta.
Il Ginócchio. I Ginócchij. Le Ginócchia.
Il Lábbro. I Lábbri. Le Lábbra.
Il Légno. I Légni. Le Légna.
Il Múro. I Múri. Le Múra.
I Membro. I Membri. Le Membra.
L'Orécchio. Gl'Orécchij. Le Orécchia.
L'O'ſſo. Gl'O'ſſi. Le O'ſſa.
Il Páio. I Páij. Le Páia.
Il Páro. I Pári. Le Pára.
Il Peccáto. I Peccáti. Le Peccáta.
Il Púgno. I Púgni. Le Púgna.
Il Quadrello. I Quadrelli. Le Quadrella.
Il Raſtello. I Raſtelli. Le Raſtella.
Il Ríſo. I Ríſi. Le Riſa.
Il Stáio. I Stáij. Le Stáia.
Il Stáro. I Stári. Le Stára.
Il Strído. I Strídi. Le Strída.
Il Veſtígio. I Veſtígij. Le Veſtígia.
Il Veſtiménto. I Veſtiménti. La Veſtiménta, &c.

There be ſome others that I remember not. Yet note that there be ancient Poets that make ſome of them end in O'ra, as theſe, Láto, Cámpo, Luógo, O'rto, Córpo, Práto, Rámo, &c. and in the Plurall ſay. Campóra, Corpóra, Latóra, Luogóra, Pratóra, Ortóra, &c. In ſteede of Cámpi, Córpi, Láti, Luóghi, O'rti, Práti, &c. but are not generally allowed.

Note that the Italians have a peculiar priuiledge more liuely to declare, and more ſuccinctly to expreſſe the proper forme and quality of any primitiue, poſitiue, or radicall Noune, then all other nations or languages, and which among them is very much uſed, both in ſpeaking and writing, and is counted very quaint and elegant; and becauſe it was neuer yet noted of any, and is ſo frequently vſed, I deeme the knowledge thereof to be moſt neceſſary, and thinke it behofefull to be declared vnto your ſoueraigne Maiesty; which is, by adding certaine terminations or ſillables vnto any primitiue or poſitiue nounes, as for example, I'no, E'cto, V'ccio, O'tto, O'ne, A'ccio; for theſe are the most vsed. What noune ſoeuer endeth in I'no, ſheweth the ſame to be very little, ſmall, and the leaſt that may be. What noune ſoeuer endeth in E'tto, declares the ſame to be both very little, and therewithall quaint and pretty. What noune ſoeuer endeth in V'ccio, importeth the ſame to be poor, miſerable, wretched, and deſeruing compaſsion. Whatſoeuer noune endeth in O'tto, implieth the ſame to be handſomely big, well compact, and indifferently goodly. What noune ſoeuer endeth in O'ne, doth manifest the ſame to be great beyond reaſon, bigge and ouer great, farre exceeding due proportion, huge aboue meaſure. What noune ſoeuer endeth in A'ccio, argueth the ſame to be vgly, lothſome, contemptible, filthy, and odious. Let theſe few examples ſerue for all the reſt.

Anello, any kinde of ordinary Ring.
Anellíno, a very little or ſmall Ring.
Anellétto, a little, and therewith pretty and quaint Ring.
Anellúccio, a ſilly, poore, abiect, and baſe Ring.
Anellótto, a handſome, well faſhioned, and not despiſable Ring.
Anellóne, a huge, bigge, great, exceeding due proportion Ring.
Anelláccio, a filthy, contemptible, lothſome, and to be reiected Ring.
Cauállo, Cauallíno, Cauallétto, Cauallúccio, Cauallótto, Cauallóne, Caualláccio.
Dónna, Donnína, Donnétta, Donnúccia, Donnótta, Donnóne, Donnáccia.
Spáda, Spadína, Spadétta, Spadúccia, Spadótta, Spadóne, Spadáccia.

And ſo of all the rest: but remember, that if you will haue them end in O'tto, or O'ne, you must make the Feminin poſitiue to end in O. as Donnóne, Caſóne, Spadóne, Tauolóne, of Dónna, Spáda, Cáſa, Táuola, &c

Note alſo that if the primitiue noune end in No, or Re, as Alfino, Paſtóre, to expreſſe a kinde of diminution or prettineſſe, you may make them end in Ello, as Aſinello, Baſtoncello, Paſtorello, &c.

Note that all Nounes ending in Lo. Le. Ro. Re. or Ne. except the last vowell require an accent, the ſaid vowell may be left out, and at pleaſure both in ſpeaking and writing, in ſteed of Búffalo. Cauállo. Mále. Quále. Tále. Amató. Cáro. Caro. Colóre. Honóre. Buóno. Sáno. Máno. Cáne. Páne. as alſo all Infinitiue moods, as Amáre. Cantáre. Tenére. Vedére. Córrere. Teſſere. Dormíre. Vdíre. you may very well ſay, Buffal'. Cauál'. Mál'. Quál. Tal'. Amár'. Cár'. Colór'. Honór'. Buón. Sán'. Mán'. Cán'. Pán'. Amár'. Cantár'. Tenér'. Vedér'. Córrer'. Teſſer'. Dormír'. Vdír', &c. For L. N. and R, are among the Italians counted as the principall liquids in which words may end, though ſome count M. and T. liquids alſo. For ſome make the firſt perſons plurall of Verbes end in M. leauing out the O. as you ſhall ſee better in Verbes, as alſo becauſe the Coniunction copulatiue endeth in T. namely before conſonants, as hath alreadie beene ſaid.

Note alſo that all plurals of moſt maſculine words, whoſe ſingulars end in Llo, or Le, may at the pleaſure of the Speaker or Writer end in Gli. Li. or I as Cauállo. Cauágli. Cauálli. Cauái. or Cauá'. Capello. Capegli. Capelli. Capei. or Cape'. Quéllo. Quégli. Quélli. Quéi. or Que'. Tále. Táli. Tái. Ta'. &c.

Note that where the Latins vſe in diuers of their words the letter E. after the firſt conſonant of the firſt ſillable, as Melle. Felle. Feno. Leto. Pede. Sedet. Tenet. the Italians for elegancy ſake put an I. betweene the ſaid conſonant and the E. and ſay and write, Miele. Fiele. Fieno. Lieto. Piede. Siede. Tiene. &c.

Note alſo that where the Latines haue the open or round O. for the ſecond letter after a conſonant, as in theſe wordes: Bono. Corde. Foco. Homo. Mouére. Sono. Tono. Nocére. &c. the Italians commonly put an V. before the O. and ſay and write, Buóno, Cuóre, Fuóno, Huómo, Muóuere, Nuócre, Suóno, Tuóno, &c.

Note that where the Latins vſe in diuers words the letter L. after C. F. and P. the Italians change the L. into I. and in ſteede of Cláro, Claritáte, Clamáre, Claue, Concluſione, Flamma, Flóre, Flumen, Plano, Planta, Plombo, Templo, &c. they ſay, Chiáro, Chiarità, Chiamáre, Chiáue, Conchiuſióne, Fiámma, Fióre, Fiúme, Piáno, Piánta, Piómbo, Tempio, &c.

Note that when an Italian word beginneth with S. and that any other conſonant followes the ſame, as in theſe examples, Sbandáre, Scacciáre, Sconſoláto, Sfacendáto, Sfórzo, Smenticáto, Spauento, Stermináto, Stroménto, Sueniménto, &c. the best Italians for Elegancies ſake, place and pronounce an I. before the S. and ſay, Isbandáre, Iſcacciáre, Iſconſoláto, Iſpacendáto, Isfórzo, Iſmenticáto, Iſpauento, Iſtermináto, Iſtromento, Iſueniménto, &c.

Note that where the Latins vſe in many words theſe two conſonants together, Bf. Bn. Bſ. Bt. Ct. Dm. Mn. Pt. which the Italians call Aſpre conſonánti, of moſt of their Latin wordes following, they make Italian wordes by loſing the firſt of them, and euer doubling the latter conſonants, as for example.

Obfuſcáre. Offuſcáre.
Abnuntiáre. Annontiáre.
Obſeruáre. Oſseruáre.
Obteſtáre. Otteſtáre.
Obtúſo. Ottúſo.
Doctrína. Dottrína.
Admonitione. Ammonitióne.
Aduerſitate. Auuerſità.
Omnipotente. Onnipotente.
Optatiuo. Ottatíuo.
Optimo. Ottimo.

and infinite others: yet remember that in theſe two Latine wordes, Omnis, and Somnium, the Italians change Mn. into Gn. and ſay, Ogni, Sógno, Sognáre, &c.

Note alſo that where the Latines vſe the letter X. betweene two vowels, as Alexandro, Exemplo, Dixi, Prolixitate, Sáxo, Taxatio, &c. the Italians change the X. into double SS, and ſay, Aleſſándro, Eſsempio, Diſſi, Proliſſità, Sáſſo, Taſſatióne, &c.

Note that adding Dif. In. Iſ. or S. vnto any actiue or poſſeſiue word or verbe, the ſame becommeth of the priuatiue ſenſe, as appeareth by theſe examples.

Fáre. Disfáre. Memoráte. Iſmemoráto.
Proportióne. Diſproportióne. Conſoláto. Iſconſoláto.
Felíce. Infelíce. Conoſcente. Iſconoſcente.
Coſtánte Incoſtánte. Vólgere. Suólgere.
And infinite others.

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