Old English Occupational Place Names

The names presented here come from Names of Trades in English Place-Names, by Eilert Ekwall, which was published in 1933 as part of the book Historical Essays in Honour of James Tait. The author explained:

In this study the intention is chiefly to deal with place-names that have been found in OE sources or in Domesday Book or for which there is good reason to suppose OE origin. French and Scandinavian loanwords are generally omitted.

The present study is preliminary and only claims to give a brief survey of the chief material. Considerations of space only allow of giving a few of the most important early forms for each name.

"OE", here, means "Old English". The earliest name citations are from 7th-century sources, and the latest from the 14th.

Ekwall discussed most of the place names he mentioned in categories, and they're grouped here in the same ones:

There were a handful of names mentioned that don't fit into any of those. I've grouped them as:

The various names for each location are grouped together, because in some cases the variants shed light on one another in a way that wouldn't otherwise be obvious without a cumbersome degree of cross-indexing and annotation. The definitions, dates, and sources listed here are those given by Ekwall, as are the notes on the locations of the places (which could shed further light on dialectical variation). The modern place names are also from Ekwall, though italicized notes in that column are mine. I've left off any macrons that were used in the occupational terms, but otherwise transcribed everthing precisely, to the best of my ability. (There were no macrons in any of the place names.) Ekwall's sources, as cited by him, are listed at the bottom of this page. Some of them are now available in the Web Archive, and can readily be consulted should you require more information on the context in which a particular spelling was found or wish to look for additional variants. The online Middle English Dictionary would also be a good source to consult if you're looking for related names. It contains bynames and place names constructed with several of the occupational terms.

Ploughman, Herdsman and the Like

modern place name period name (source) occupational term(s); definition(s) other notes
Fortherley (Northumberland) Falderle (1208 Cur)
Falderleg' (1255 Ass)
falder, folder; 'one who folds sheep', 'shepherd' "Faulder" is described as, ". . .a word evidenced in NED from 1571, but found as a surname in 1332 (Ivo faulder in Raughton Cu 1332 Subs)."
Horsington (Somerset) Horstenetone (DB)
Horsinton' (1179 P)
horsþegn; 'groom' "The place is near Henstridge, whose name means 'the stallion's ridge'."
Horsmonden (Kent) 

Horsburdenne (1210-12 RBE)

Horsmonden (1263 Ipm)
Horsmundene (1291 Tax)

"['Horseburdenne'] may have as first el. an OE hors-burg. . ."

The others, "may contain an unrecorded OE horsman 'groom'."

Irthlingborough (Northhamptonshire) Ertlingeburc' (1203 Ass)
Ertlinburg' (1205 Cur. A)
Hyrtlingberi (1137 ASC [E])
Irtlingburg (12 NS)
Urtlingburch' (1179 P)
Yrtlingaburg (780 BCS 1334)
yrþling; 'husbandman', 'tiller of the soil', 'ploughman' "Irthlingborough would then be 'the fort of the ploughmen, the fort used by ploughmen for keeping their oxen'." 
Madresfield (Worcestershire) Madresfeld (c. 1086 PNWo)
Metheresfeld' (1191 P)
mæþere; 'mower'  
Poundisford (Somerset) Punderford (1225 Ass)
Punderesford' (1243 Ass)
pundere, a "side-form" of "pinder"; "an officer whose task it was to impound stray cattle"  
Salmonsbury (Gloucestershire)  Sulmonnesburg (779 BCS 230) sulhman; 'ploughman'  
shocker's well Schokerseswell (1259 FF [Gl]) perhaps shocker; 'one who piles sheaves in shocks'

The article says of "shocker", "The word is first evidenced in NED from 1827, but it occurs as a surname c. 1300 (Mawer, A Grammatical Miscellany offered to Otto Jespersen, p. II)."

"Shockerwick" is glossed as 'the dwelling of the shockers'.

Shockerwick (Somerset)  Sokerwicha (1166 RBE)
Shokerwyk (1412 FA)
shocker; 'one who piles sheaves in shocks'
Shepperton (Middlesex)  Scepertone (DB)
Scepertune (959 BCS 1050, 1065 BM)
sceaphyrde; 'shepherd'  
Swampton (Hampshire) Suantune (DB) swan; 'herd, esp. swineherd'  
Swanage (Dorset) Swanawic (877 ASC) swan; 'herd, esp. swineherd' "For Swanage a meaning 'swan's bay' may seem tempting, but a word wic 'bay' is unknown in Old English."
Swanscombe (Kent)  Suanescamp (695 BCS87, 1202 Cur.) swan; 'herd, esp. swineherd'  
Swanthorpe (Hampshire) Swandorp (1248 Crondal)
Swanthrope (1334 Crondal)
swan; 'herd, esp. swineherd'  
Swanton (Kent, near Mereworth) Swanatune (10 BCS 1322) swan; 'herd, esp. swineherd'  
Swanton Abbot
Swanton Morley
Swanton Novers
Suanetuna (DB) swan; 'herd, esp. swineherd'  

Huntsman, Fisherman, Etc.

modern place name period name (source) occupational term(s); definition(s) other notes
beekeeper fold bycera fald (972 BCS 1282) beocere; 'bee-keeper'  
beekepper gate beocera gente (985 KCD 652)) beocere; 'bee-keeper' "Gente" is glossed as "no doubt for geate"
beekeeper wood Bikerwode (13 Darley Cart [Db Arch Ass 26) beocere; 'gatherer of wild honey' "'wood of the beoceras'"
Bewick (Northumberland) Bewic (1201 Cur.) beocere; 'bee-keeper'
Bewick (Yorkshire)  Biuuich (DB)  
Bickershaw (Lancashire) Bikersah (c. 1200 CC) beocere; 'gatherer of wild honey'  
Bickerstaffe (Lancashire)  Bikerstad (a 1190 CC) beocere; 'bee-keeper' ". . .means 'the landing-place of the bee-keepers'."
Bickerston (Norfolk)  Bikereston' (1197 P) beocere; 'bee-keeper'  
Bickerton (Otley, Yorkshire)  Biceratun (c. 1030 YCh 7) beocere; 'bee-keeper'  
Bickerton (Cheshire, Herefordshire, Yorkshire in Wetherby) Bicretone (DB)
Bicretune (DB)
beocere; 'bee-keeper'  
Bickerton (Northumberland)  Bikertun (1236 Fees) beocere; 'bee-keeper'  
Bonhunt Banhunta (DB)
Bonhunte (1262 FF)
huntan; 'huntsmen' "Skeat explained Cheshunt as elliptical, OE ceasterhuntan being used (in the gen. sing.) in the sense 'the chester-huntsman's', in the same way as when we say 'Smith's' instead of 'Smith's house'. Such ellipsis is unknown in OE place-names. Professor Mawer would take -hunt to be hunt 'district hunted'. But this is a late word (c. 1375 etc. NED), and an OE hunte formed from huntian would be withouth analogies. In my opinion -hunt represents OE huntan plr. This came to be used of the huntsman's dwelling-place.. . .Ceasterhuntan would be 'the huntsmen of the Roman fort'. It is not clear what ceaster refers to in this name. Chadshunt would be 'Ceadel's huntsmen'. . .Bonhunt is not clear. Formally the first el. seems to be most likely OE ban 'bone', but that does not give good sense. It may be OE gebann 'summons', to that Bonhunt would mean, 'huntsmen liable to be summoned'.. . ."
Chadshunt (Warwickshire) Chadeleshunte (1043)
Chaddeleshunt (II KCD 916, 939)
Cedeleshunte (DB)
huntan; 'huntsmen'
Cheshunt (Hertfordshire) Cestrehunt (DB)
Cestrehunte (1197 FF)
huntan; 'huntsmen'
Colsterdale (Yorkshire) Colserdale (DB)
Costerdale (1330 Ch)
speculatively colestre; 'charcoal-burner' "No OE word for the charcoal-burner is known, but place-names show that two must have been used: colere in Cowlersley. . .and colestre in Colsterdale. . .and Colsterworth. . .."
Colsterworth (Lincolnshire) Colsteuorde (DB)
[Colste]uorda (1128 Fr)
speculatively colestre; 'charcoal-burner'
Cowlersley (Yorkshire) Colresleye (1226 FF) speculatively colere; 'charcoal-burner'
Fisherton Anger (Wiltshire) Fiscartone (DB) fiscere; 'fisherman'  
Fisherton Delamare (Wiltshire)  Fisertone (DB) fiscere; 'fisherman'  
Fiskerton (Lincolnshire)  Fiskertuna (1060 KCD 808) fiscere; 'fisherman' 

"Fiskerton for Fisherton is a Scandinavianized form."

"Sirtetune" is marked "(sic)".

Fiskerton (Nottinghamshire) Sirtertune (958 YCh2)
Fiscartune (DB)
Fisherwick (Staffordshire)  Fiscerwic (1167 P)
Fisserewic (1167 P)
fiscere; 'fisherman'  
Fishley (Norfolk) Fiscele (DB)
Fissele (1205 Cur.)
perhaps fisca; 'fisherman' "An OE fisca correspondingn to Gothic fiskja 'fisherman' would suit excellently and may well be the first element."
Fishmere (Lincolnshire)  Fiskermere (1190 P) fiscere; 'fisherman' "Fiskerton for Fisherton is a Scandinavianized form."
Fortherley (Northumberland) Falderle (1208 Cur)
Falderleg' (1255 Ass)
falder, folder; 'one who folds sheep', 'shepherd' "Faulder" is described as, ". . .a word evidenced in NED from 1571, but found as a surname in 1332 (Ivo faulder in Raughton Cu 1332 Subs)."
Fullerton (Hampshire)  Fugelerestune (DB)
Fughelerton' (1234 Cl)
fugelere; 'fowler'  
Hawkhurst Moor (Warwickshire)  Hauekermor (1315 Ipm)
Hauekeresmore (1315 Ipm)
hafocere; 'hawker'  
Hawkerland (Devon)  Hauekeresland (1227 Ch)
Hauekareland' (1242 Fees 793)
hafocere; 'hawker'  
Hunston (Suffolk) Hunterstuna (1086 DB) hunta; 'huntsman'  
Huntercombe (Oxfordshire)  Huntercumbe (1232 Ch) hunter; 'huntsman'  
Huntingdon (Huntingdonshire)  Huntandun (921 ASC) perhaps hunta; 'huntsman' ". . .held in PNHu to contain a pers[onal] n[ame] Hunta."
Huntingford (Dorset) Hunteneford (1279 For) hunta; 'huntsman' "The common name Huntingford . . .means 'hunters' ford', but the exact meaning may be 'ford used by people going hunting' [as opposed to 'ford of the professional huntsman']."
Huntingford (Gloucestershire)  Huntena ford (so 940 BCS 764)
Huntington (Cheshire) Huntingdun (958 BCS 1041) hunta; 'huntsman'   ". . .may be 'hill where people used to hunt' [rather than a reference to a professional huntsman]."
Huntington (Staffordshire)  Huntedon (1247 Ass)
Huntindon (1290 Ch)
Huntington (Herefordshire) Huntena tun (757-75, 796 BCS 218, 277) hunta; 'huntsman' ". . .must mean 'homestead or village of the huntsmen'."
Thorpe Acre (Leicestershire) Thorp Haueker (1319 BM) perhaps hafocere; 'hawker' "In Thorpe Acre. . .we may have the family name Hawker."
Tolleshunt Toleshunta (DB) huntan; 'huntsmen'

See the note at "Bonhunt", above.

"Tolleshunt [would be] 'Toli's huntsmen'. Tolleshunt is near Tollesbury, whose name means 'Toli's manor'. Toli was clearly a lord, and to judge by his name a Scandinavian."

Smith, Wright, and the Like

modern place name period name (source) occupational term(s); definition(s) other notes
Baxterley (Warwickshire)  Basterlee (c. 1180 Middleton)
Bakesterl[eye] (1282 Cl)
bæcestre; 'baker' ". . .it is possible the word is here used as a family name."
Faversham (Kent)  Fefresham (811 BCS 335, etc.) possibly "an old word for smith, viz. an early loan from Lat. faber"  
the wrights' land (near Wilton) þara wyrhtena land (944 BCS 795)  wyrhta; 'wright' ("originally used of any handicraftsman, but was restricted to be used only of one that works in wood. . .")  
Great Smeaton (North Riding, Yorkshire) Smiþatun (966-72 LVD)
Smidetune (DB)
smith; 'smith'  
Little Smeaton (North Riding, Yorkshire) Smidetune (DB)
Litle Smithetune (1088 LVD)
smith; 'smith'  
Little Smeeton (West Riding, Yorkshire) Smedetone (DB)
Smydetona (c. 1150 YCh 1494)
smith; 'smith'  
Rigbolt (Lincolnshire, near Spalding) Writtebaud (13 BM)
Wirchebald (1238 Ep)
Writebaud (1251 Ep)
wyrhta; 'wright' ("originally used of any handicraftsman, but was restricted to be used only of one that works in wood. . .") ". . .is wyrhtan bold 'the dwelling of the wright'."
Shelderton (Shropshire)  Shelderton' (1243 Cl, 1327 Subs) sceldere, scildere; 'shield maker' "Shieldmaker is OE scildwyrhta, as in s
shieldwright street (in Winchester) scyldwyrhtana stræt (966 KCD 1291) scildwyrhta; 'shieldmaker'  
Smeeton (Essex) Smedetuna (DB) smith; 'smith'  
Smeeton (Leicestershire) Smitone (DB) smith; 'smith'  
Smethcot (Shropshire) Smethecot (1242 Fees)
Smedecote (1256 Ass)
smith; 'smith' "'the smith's cottage'"
Smethcott (Shropshire) Smerecote (DB)
Smeþecot' (1255 RH)
smith; 'smith' "'the smith's cottage'"
Smethwick (Cheshire) Smethewyk (1331 Ormerod) smith; 'smith' "'the smith's wic, or dwelling'"
Smethwick (Staffordshire) Smedeuuich (DB)
Smethewic (1221 Ass)
smith; 'smith' "'the smith's wic, or dwelling'"
Soutergate (Lancashire) Soutergate (1332 Subs) sutari; 'shoemaker' (Old Norse)  
Sutterby (Lincolnshire) Sutrebi (DB, c. 1115 LiS) sutari; 'shoemaker' (Old Norse)  
Sutterton (Lincolnshire) Suterton' (1202 Ass) sutere; 'shoemaker'  
Wrightington (Lancashire) Wrstincton (1195 FF)
Wrichtington (1202 FF)
wyrhta; 'wright' ("originally used of any handicraftsman, but was restricted to be used only of one that works in wood. . .") "is wyrhtena tun"

Saltmaker, Potter, Etc.

modern place name period name (source) occupational term(s); definition(s) other notes
Crockerton (Wiltshire) Crokerton (1350 FF) probably croccere; 'potter' "Another OE word for potter is probably found in Crockerton. . .viz. an OE croccere from crocc 'a pot'. Crocker is evidenced from c. 1315 in NED. A still earlier example is Richard le Crockere c. 1270-80 Bodl (Warnham Sx)."
Hopperton (Yorkshire) Hopretone (DB)
Hoperton' (1203 FF)
hopere; 'hooper' "OE hopere 'hooper' is in my opinion the first el[ement]. . .This seems far preferable to Moorman's suggestion that it is OE hoppere 'dancer'. Hooper is first evidenced in NED from the sixteenth centruy, while hoop is found before 1175. Bardsley exemplifies Hopere as a surname from 1273."
potter field Poterlagh' (1343 Selby ii, 323) pottere; 'potter'  
potter's field (Marchington, Staffordshire)  Potteresleag (951 BCS 890) pottere; 'potter'  
Potter Heigham (Norfolkshire) Hegham Pottere (1182 BM) pottere; 'potter'  
Potterne (Wiltshire)  Poterne (DB) perhaps pottere; 'potter' "might well be OE pottera ærn"
Potterspury (Northamptonshire)  Pirie (DB)
Potterespirye (1287 Ass)
pottere; 'potter'  
Potterton (Yorkshire)  Potertun (DB) pottere; 'potter'  
Salterford (Nottinghamshire) Saltreford (DB) sealtere; 'salt-seller'  
Salterforth (Yorkshire)  Salterford (Hy 3 Kirkstall Cart) sealtere; 'salt-seller'  
Salterton (Wiltshire) Saltertun (1198 P) sealtere; 'saltmaker'  
Saltram (Devon) Salterham (1249 PND) sealtere; 'saltmaker'  
Sapperton (Derbyshire)  Sapertune (DB) sapere; 'soap-maker' "ME sopere is found c. 1225 in the sense 'soap-seller'. As a surname it occurs earlier (William le Sopere 1195 P). It is obivious that soap-making was done in various parts of England in Anglo-Saxon times. We know that soap was made in Germanic countries from the ninth century at least. The saponarii of Charlemagne are mentioned in his Capitulare."
Sapperton (Gloucestershire) Saperetún (969 BCS 1239)
Sapertun (1045 KCD 777)
Sapletorne (DB)
sapere; 'soap-maker'
Sapperton (Lincolnshire) Sapretone (DB)
Sapreton (1269 Ch)
sapere; 'soap-maker'
soaper's cot (Lincolnshire) Sapercota (1191 ff. P) sapere; 'soap-maker'
Sawtry (Huntingdonshire)  Salteia (974 BCS 1310)
Saltrede (DB)
sealtere; 'salt-seller' "means 'the salt-sellers' landing-place' (OE hyþ)
Skinningrove (Yorkshire) Scineregrive (c. 1175 YCh)
Skyneregreve (1272 Cl)
skinner; 'tanner' (Scan[dinavian]) "means 'the skinners' pit' (second el[ement] O[ld] N[orse] gryfja 'pit')."
tanner's hole [no modern form given] tannera hole (973 BCS 1295) tannere; 'tanner'  
Tuckerton (Somerset) Tokerton (n.d. Buckland)
Tukerton (n.d. Buckland)
Tokertone (1284-5 FA)
tucker; 'fuller'  
Tucks Cary (Somerset in Charlton Mackerel)  Tukares Cary (Hy 3 BM)
Gukarkari (1265 Misc)
tucker; 'fuller'  
Walker's Heath (Worcestershire) le Walkerishathe (1314 AD i) perhaps wealcere; 'fuller' ". . .may contain the family name Walker."
Walkerith (Lincolnshire)  Walkerez (13 BM)
Walcreth (1316 FA)
perhaps wealcere; 'fuller' ". . .looks like wealcera hyþ, but on the other side of the Trent is Walkeringham. . .whose name seems to be connected with that of Walkerith, but can hardly contain OE wealcere."
Walkern (Hertfordshire) Walchra (DB)
Walkern (1241 Ep)
perhaps wealcere; 'fuller' ". . .might be wealcera ærn, but wealc-ærn is a possible alternative."
Woodbury Salterton (Devon) Salterton (1306 Ass) sealtere; 'saltmaker'  
weller's pits wylleres seaþon (995 KCD 691) wyllere; 'salt-boiler' "I take wyllere to be identical with M[iddle] E[nglish] weller 'salt-boiler' (found from c. 1440 in NED). OE seaþ means 'a pit'. The name would thus mean 'the salt-boiler's pits', whch gives excellent sense."

Merchant, Pedlar

modern place name period name (source) occupational term(s); definition(s) other notes
chapman dell (Hurstborne, Hampshire) cypmanna dell (955)
ceapmanna del (961)
(BCS 905, 1080)
ceapmon, ciepemon; 'chapman'  
chapman ford (perhaps Wiltshire) chypmanna ford (949 BCS 879) ceapmon, ciepemon; 'chapman'  
Chapmanslade (Wiltshire) Chepmanslade (1396 Ipm) ceapmon, ciepemon; 'chapman' "may have as a second el[ement] OE slæd 'valley' or lad 'road'"
Lattiford (Somerset) Lodereforda (DB) loddere; 'vagabond, beggar'  
loddere's sacking (Hampshire) loddæræs sæccing (856 BCS 491 loddere; 'vagabond, beggar' ". . .means 'the vagabond's mattress or bed', evidently a jocular name."
loddere's street (Berkshire) Loddera stræt (952 BCS 895) loddere; 'vagabond, beggar'  
loddere's way (Gloucestershire)  Lodreswei (KCD 1367)    
Mangerton (Dorset) Mangerton (1207 Cur)
Manggerton (1333 BM)
mangere; 'trader'  
Packmanston (Kent) Pakemanston (Hy 3 Ipm) packman; 'pedlar' "Packman. . .is recorded in NED from the seventeenth century, but is found in the place-name. . ."
Parracombe (Dorset) Pedracomba (DB)
Pedrecumbe (DB)
perhaps pedder; 'pedlar'  

Harp-Player, Piper, Etc.

modern place name period name (source) occupational term(s); definition(s) other notes
Bemersley (Staffordshire) Bemersleg (1252 Ch) biemere; 'hornblower', from OE bieme 'trumpet'  
Bemerton (Wiltshire) Bimertone (DB)
Bimerton' (1242 Fees)
Bumerton (1316 FA)
Harper's Brook (Northamptonshire) Harperesbrok (t. Steph PNNp) perhaps hearpere; 'harp-player' could also be from the surname "Harper"
Harperley (Durham) Harperleia (1183 BoB) perhaps hearpere; 'harp-player' could also be from the surname "Harper"
Harpsfield (Hertfordshire)  Harpesfeld (1267, 1272 AD i) hearpere; 'harp-player'  
Harpswell (Lincolnshire)  Herpeswelle (DB)
Harpeswella (c. 1115 LiS)
hearpere; 'harp-player'  
Harpurhey (Lancashire) Harpourhey (1320 Mamecestre) perhaps hearpere; 'harp-player' could also be from the surname "Harper"
Hornblotton (Somerset) Horblawetone (DB)
Hornblauton (1236 FF)
Hornblaneton' (1276 RH)
probably honblawere; 'hornblower' "The second r was lost owing to dissimilation. But an OE hornblawa may have existed."
hornblower valley (Downton, Wiltshire) bymera cumb (BCS 27, 690, etc.) biemere; 'hornblower', from OE bieme 'trumpet' ". . .means 'the valley of the hornblowers'. The locality is mentioned in bouds of Downton W[iltshire], which is not far from Bemerton. Bymera cumb may have been an out-lying part of Bemerton."
Peper Harrow (Surrey) Pipereherge (DB) probably pipere; 'piper' "The second element is OE hearg 'heathen temple', etc. (cf. Harrow). The name would mean 'the Harrow belonging to the pipers'."
piper's cot (Tottenham, Middlesex) Piperescote (1272 AD ii) pipere; 'piper' "means 'the piper's cottage'"

Judge, Leech, Etc.

modern place name period name (source) occupational term(s); definition(s) other notes
Buckhorn Weston (Dorset) Bokeres Westone (1285 FA)
Bokereweston (1288 Ass)
bocere; 'scribe' ". . .was originally Weston, but a distinguishing element was added. . ."
Damerham (Hampshire) Domrahamm (c. 880 BCS 553)
Domerham (946)
Domarham (c. 995 ib. 817, 1288)
Domerham (946 ASC D)
domere; 'judge' "The correct OE from was no doubt Domera hamm or ham 'the ham(m) of the judges'."
Lexham (Norfolk)  Lecesham (DB)
Leccesham (DB)
Lechesham (1196 P)
perhaps læce; 'leech', 'physician' "At any rate no other word or name is recorded which might be the first element."
Mottistone (Worcestershire) Modrestan (DB)
Motestan (1176 ff. P)
motere; 'orator' "The name goes back to OE moteres stan or motera stan. The place was presumably a meeting-place, and the stone one where an advocate or somebody else pleaded or the judge gave sentence. It is not certain, of course, that motere here refers to a professional advocate or judge."
orator ford motera ford (lacu) (999 KCD 703) motere; 'orator' In Old English "lacu" meant 'stream' or 'pool'.
Rothersthorpe (Northamptonshire) 

Torp (DB)

Torp Advocati (1220 Fees)

Retherestorp (1231 Ch)

perhaps rædere; 'advocate', 'counsel' "The word is not found in this sense, but ME reder occurs in that of 'giver of counsel'. The name was at an early date associated with rether, rother 'ox'."
Tollerton (Yorkshire)

Toletun (972 BCS 1279)
Tolentun (DB)

Tolereton' (1167 P)

apparently tolnere; 'toller', 'tax-gatherer' "The earlier forms of the name. . .seem to represent an alternative OE Toln-tun, with OE toln 'toll' as first element"

Uncategorized Occupation-Based Place Names

modern place name period name (source) occupational term(s); definition(s) other notes
Kirkeby Overblow (Yorkshire)

Kirkby-fferers (1291 Tax)

Kirkeby Orblawere (1281 Ch)
Kirkeby Orblawers (1363 BM)

ferrier; 'one who works in iron' (French)

orblawere; 'ore-blower', 'smelter'

"The word [orblawere] is not evidenced in OE sources, and the place-name adduced is so far as I know the only trace of the word. There were formerly bloomeries at Kirkby Overblow, and the meaning of Orblawere is indicated also by the fact that it is sometimes replaced by the French word ferrier. . .."

Place Names Not Derived from Occupations

modern place name period name (source) discussed term(s); definition(s) other notes
Boarhunt (Hampshire) æt Byrhfunt' (10 BCS 1161) funta; 'spring'  
Chalfont (Buckinghamshire)  Ceadeles funtan (949 BCS 883) funta; 'spring'  
Hammersmith (in London) Hameresmithe (1312 Selden Soc. 33) smiþþe; 'smithy' "evidently means 'the hammer-smithy'"
Swanmore (Hampshire) Suanemere (1234 Selborne) swan; 'swan' "'lake frequented by swans'"
Walkeringham Wacheringeham (DB)
Walcringham (13 BM)
  "Walkerith Li[ncolnshire]. . .looks like wealcera hyþ, but on the other side of the Trent is Walkeringham. . .whose name seems to be connected with that of Walkerith, but can hardly contain OE wealcere."

Ekwall's Sources

AD Catalogue of Ancient Deeds Godric Vita S. Godrici
ASC The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Heming Hemingi Liber de terris et redditibus Ecclesiæ Wigorniensis
Ass Assize Rolls  Ipm Inquisitions post mortem
BCS Cartularium saxonicum, ed. Birch IPN Introduction to the Survey of English Place-Names
BM Index to the Charters and Rolls in the British Museum KCD Codex diplomaticus, ed. Kemble
BoB The Boldon Book LiS The Lincolnshire Survey
Bodl Calendar of Charters and Rolls in the Bodleian Library LVD Liber vitæ Ecclesiæ Dunelmensis
Buckland A Cartulary of Buckland Priory Middleton MSS. of Lord Middleton at Wollaston Hall
CC Cockersand Cartulary Misc Inquisitions Miscellaneous
 Ch Charter Rolls NED A New English Dictionary
Cl Close Rolls NS The Northamptonshire Survey
Crondal Records. . .relating to the Hundred and Manor of Crondal (Hamps. Rec. Soc.) Ormerod Ormerod, History of the County. . .of Chester
Cur Curia Regis Rolls P Pipe Rolls
DB Domesday Book PN Place-Names
Earle Earle, Hand-Book to the Land-Charters, etc. RBE The Red Book of the Exchequer
Ep Episcopal registers RH Hundred Rolls
ERN Ekwall, English River Names Selborne Charters and Records relating to Selborne
FA Feudal Aids Selby The Coucher Book of Selby
Fees The Book of Fees Subs Lay Subsidies
FF Feet of Fines Tax Taxatio ecclesiastica
For Forest proceedings Thorpe Diplomatarium anglicum, ed. Thorpe
FPD Feodarium Prioratus Dunelmensis YCh Early Yorkshire Charters, ed. Farrer
Fr Calendar of Documents preserved in France    

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