Crosses in S.C.A. Heraldry: Crosses of Charges

The S.C.A. has registered a lot of crosses composed of other charges. These fall into two broad categories: crosses in which the component charges are joined end-to-end and those in which they overlap at their middles.

charges joined end-to-end in registered crosses:

acorns
arrowheads
annulets
anchors
birds
bows and arrows
caltrops
Cavendish knots
crescents
cubit arms
demi-fleurs
dragonflies
drinking horns
eel-forks
fleurs-di-lys
a grenade
hearts
horse's heads
keys
leaves
lozenges
mascles
passion nails
pheons
piles
quatrefoils
a rose
rustres
seaxes
seeblätter
swords
Thor's hammers
tulips
whitebased opals

charges overlapped at their middles in registered crosses:

arrows
barrulets
bones
bows
cables
cartouches
links of chain
a lute
a key
millrinds
a musical note
nails
a needle
pallets
ragged staves
a sickle
smith's tongs
a spear
spoons
a staff
swords

On Crosses of Charges Joined End-to-End

It was common in period heraldry for charges to be arranged in the shapes of ordinaries.

Per bend azure and argent, in bend three bezants.

BSB Cod.icon. 391, folio 163v

Or, in pall five mullets of eight points gules, the base point of each elongated and wavy.

BSB Cod.icon. 273, folio 60r

Barry argent and azure, in orle nine martlets gules.

BSB Cod.icon. 310, folio 10r

Gules, in saltire five keys Or.

BSB Cod.icon. 267, folio 95r

Per pale azure and Or, in cross five mullets of eight points counterchanged.

BSB Cod.icon. 275, folio 19r

These charges were usually in their default orientations, and when they weren't they were typically rotated as a group (all bendwise, say). In certain specific instances, however, the identifiabillity of a particular arrangement depended upon the independent rotation of the charges within it, and the individual charges were turned relative to one other as required. (The difference between three charges two-and-one and three charges in pall is no more than whether they point away from the middle of the field, for example. And the only thing distinguishing a number of long, skinny charges in fess from the same in pile is whether they run parallel to one another or angle toward center base.)

Argent, three trefoils gules.

BSB Cod.icon. 390, folio 219

Argent, three hammers bendwise gules.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 215r

Argent, in pall three linden leaves gules, stems to center.

BSB Cod.icon. 390, page 840

Azure, in fess three bourdons palewise argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 279, folio 105r

Gules, in pile three swords inverted Or.

BSB Cod.icon. 277, folio 98r

Additionally, in a small percentage of cases charges arranged into the shapes of ordinaries were conjoined, so that the entire group effectively became a single ordinary-shaped charge.

Gules, three lozenge-shaped brooches conjoined in bend sinister argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, page 187r

Argent, three eagle's feet conjoined in pall gules.

BSB Cod.icon. 390, page 887

Azure, two fish conjoined in chevron, tails to base, and on a chief argent three roses gules.

BSB Cod.icon. 266, folio 193r

I have, personally, never seen in a period emblazon an example of charges in cross that were rotated relative to one another (perhaps because charges in cross are unlikely to be confused with charges in any other arrangement, so rotating them doesn't clarify anything). I have also never seen a period example of charges conjoined in cross, whatever their orientation. In fact, the only sign of such usage before 1600 that I've found anywhere comes in the form of past statements from the Society's sovereigns of arms that both the cross of four ermine spots and the cross avellane (which is a stylized representation of four ermine tails conjoined) are period. Despite the paucity of evidence of the practice in real medieval and Renaissance arms, however, the construction of crosses from groups of charges swivelled toward or away from one another is fairly popular in S.C.A. heraldry.

An arrangement like this is sometimes blazoned as "a cross of [whichever charge is involved]", but the usage isn't consistent. Many such registrations use phrases like "conjoined in cross" instead, and there's no apparent pattern to which is used when. (There are currently registered blazons using "a cross of four pheons conjoined at the points," "a cross of four pheons, the points to the center," "four pheons conjoined in cross, barbs to center," and, "in cross four pheons conjoined at the points," for example--all different ways of describing the same thing.) Whatever the blazon, such a grouping must be conflict-checked both as a single charge (a cross, which may be judged similar enough to any other cross to conflict with it) and as multiple charges (of whatever number and type makes up the cross). The latter is due to the fact that while conjunction must be specified in the blazon of any device in which it occurs, it does not contribute to difference (as attested in the August, 2002 LoAR). An exception might be made, however, if "a cross of [charges]" was shown to have been percieved in period as being distinct from the same charges merely arranged in cross (October, 2004 LoAR).

This confusion is compounded in the case of lozenges, becasuse lozenges when conjoined in cross resemble period ordinary crosses with two different types of complex lines that also closely resemble each other—"fusilly" and "indented". In the March, 2004 LoAR, the sovereigns of arms defined the difference between them by saying, "Ideally a cross indented would look like a cross of lozenges, with a center lozenge, two or three lozenges on the top arm and each side arm, and three to five on the bottom arm, except that instead of just touching at the corners the lozenges overlap a bit. (If the lozenges only touch at the corners, then it's. . .a cross fusilly.)" Further confusion can result from the facts that the terms "cross of lozenges" and "cross of fusils" can both refer to a cross fusilly or to a cross composed of some number of lozenges or fusils that doesn't reach the edges of the field, and that "cross lozengy" is sometimes used as an alternate blazon for "cross of lozenges" (either definition) and sometimes to describe a cross that's internally divided into lozenge-shaped compartments.

Or, a bend indented gules.

BSB Cod.icon. 279, folio 155r

Or, a bend fusilly gules.

BSB Cod.icon. 279, folio 151r

Quarterly gules, a cross fusilly argent, and argent, three bendlets azure.

BSB Cod.icon. 291, folio 32v

Or, a cross lozengy sable and argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 291, folio 19v

Or, a cross lozengy argent and azure.

BSB Cod.icon. 277, folio 16r

In the S.C.A., there are no registered blazons using "cross of fusils". There is one using "cross of lozenges", where the term means "cross of four lozenges". And there's one using "cross lozengy", where that means "cross fusilly".

The following list of registered crosses of this type is as comprehensive as I could make it. I've included a few notes on visual conflicts that might arise with some of the crosses, and have tried to note any rulings that might affect them. But (as always) it is possible that I've missed something. If you need to know everything about any cross or charge seen here, you should search the precedents yourself.

Registered Crosses of Charges Joined End-to-End

Note: The Cross of Samildanach is described in the online Ordinary and Armorial as "four menorahs in cross". If that is what it is, however, it's highly enough stylized that few people would realize it without being told, and that combined with the fact that it's a named cross has kept it in the list of modern S.C.A. crosses not composed of other charges rather than in this list.

blazon inspiration / parallel S.C.A.-style emblazon rulings, precedents, and observations

a cross of four arrowheads conjoined at the points

Gules, a broad arrow argent.

BSB Cod.icon 392 d, folio 238r

made with the image of a broad arrow on page 283 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

No difference is granted between an arrowhead and a pheon. (February, 2007 LoAR)

Note: This cross has a lot in common with a Maltese cross.

cross of annulets braced throughout

Azure, a saltire of chain Or.

BSB Cod.icon. 270, folio 28r

a cross of annulets braced throughout

Volume III of William Berry's 1828 Encyclopædia Heraldica, Plate XXXVI

Note: This has a great deal in common with the registered cross of chains couped.

Latin cross of six annulets interlaced

Gules, on a cross swallowtailed Or two annulets interlaced argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 166r

Note: This has a lot in common with the registered "cross of chains couped".

cross of four anchors conjoined at the ring

Or, an anchor gules.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 310r

A cross of four anchors is substantially different from a cross crosslet and significantly different from a cross potent, but not significantly different from a cross of Calatrava (September, 1990 LoAR).

in cross four birds migrant beaks conjoined

Or, in saltire five birds migrant gules.

BSB Cod.icon. 290, folio 36r

four drawn bows and arrows conjoined in cross arrowheads outward

Bod. MS 264, folio 62v, bas de page

Also see the registered cross formed of a bow and an arrow.

four caltrops conjoined in cross points to center

made with the image of a caltrap on page 283 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

four Cavendish knots conjoined in cross

Sable, in fess two Cavendish knots palewise argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 391, folio 15v

This cross doesn't contravene the Society's long-standing ban on "knotwork" because the conjunction doesn't impare the identifiability of the constituent charges. "It should be noted, however, that this badge is probably pushing right to the limits of the allowance. . .." (November, 1994 LoAR)

four crescents conjoined in cross at the points

in cross four crescents conjoined, points inward

four crescents in cross horns to center and conjoined at the tips

Outside the S.C.A., this arrangement is often termed "a lunel".

four crescents conjoined in cross horns outward\

Azure, a crescent, an increscent, and a decrescent one and two Or.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 293r

a grenade within and conjoined to four crescents conjoined in cross at the points

Azure, on a bend Or three grenades sable enflamed gules.

BSB Cod.icon. 270, folio 110r

made with a modified version of the image of a grenade on page 284 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

in cross four cubit arms joined at the elbows, hands clenched

Azure, a sinister cubit arm proper.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 319r

made with the image of a cubit arm on page 170 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

four dragonflies conjoined in cross tails to center

four drinking horns interlaced in cross

Or, three drinking horns interlaced in pall.

BSB Cod.icon. 390, folio 491

four eel-forks conjoined in cross by their bases

made with the image of an eel fork from Christie L. Ward's SVG Images for Heralds

a cross of four fleurs-de-lys conjoined at their bases

Azure, a chevron between three fleurs-de-lys argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 307r

Note: This cross has a good deal in common with crosses in the flory family.

in cross a rose. . .between and conjoined to four fleurs-de-lys, bases to center

Azure, a rose argent seeded Or and leaved vert.

BSB Cod.icon. 390, folio 46a

made with the image of a rose on page 269 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

Note: This cross has a good deal in common with crosses in the flory family.

four demi-fleurs conjoined in cross

four hearts in cross conjoined at the points

Argent, three hearts gules.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 118v

Note: This cross closely resembles a four-leaved shamrock.

four hearts conjoined in cross, points outward

four hearts voided conjoined in cross, points outward

four seeblätter conjoined in cross points outward

Gules, on a bend argent three seeblätter vert.

BSB Cod. icon. 310, folio 118r

made with the seeblätt on Plate 381 of the International Heraldry Society's 1952 Vocabulaire-Atlas Héraldique

in cross four horse's heads contourny, necks conjoined

Argent, a horse's head contourny sable.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 288v

made with a detail from the image of a horse passant on page 201 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

Note: This basic shape of this cross has a lot in common with a cross gurgity.

eight keys in cross parted, addorsed in pairs, all conjoined at the base by links of chain

Gules, a key palewise, wards to chief, argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 148r

Note: This cross has a lot in common with a cross potent disjointed.

four holly leaves conjoined in cross

Argent, conjoined in pall three thistle leaves vert.

BSB Cod.icon. 291, folio 33r

made with a drawing of a holly leaf on page 329 of James Parker's 1894 A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry

four holly leaves conjoined in cross . . .fructed

made with a drawing of a holly leaf on page 329 of James Parker's 1894 A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry

four maple leaves in cross, stems fretted

Vairy vert and Or, on a chief Or two leaves vert.

BSB Cod.icon. 277, folio 84r

based on a drawing of a leaf of Acer campestre in the Az Erdélyi-medence flóra-adatbázisa.

four oak leaves conjoined at the stems in cross

Argent, four oak leaves conjoined in saltire vert.

Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek fol. 220, p. 741

based on an unattributed drawing of a leaf of Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein on the "Waddington arboretum" website

Also take note of the registered cross of oak leaves conjoined to a saltire of acorns.

four oak leaves conjoined in cross and fructed

Azure, three acorns proper and in chief a label of two points argent.

BSB Cod.icon., 392 d, folio 326v

based on an unattributed drawing of a leaf of Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein on the "Waddington arboretum" website and the image of an acorn slipped on Plate VIII of William Berry's 1828 Encyclopædia Heraldica, Volume III

Also take note of the registered cross of oak leaves conjoined to a saltire of acorns.

four walnut leaves conjoined in cross

Argent, three leaves conjoined in pall vert.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 272r

based on an image of Juglans regia leaves from Paul Graebner's 1918 Taschenbuch zum Pflanzenbestimmen, a modified version of which is available under a GNU Free Documentation License

cross of four lozenges

cross of four fusils

cross of lozenges

Note: The relationship between lozenges and fusils is analogous to that between an ordinary and its diminutive. Fusils are less robust, but exactly where the line is drawn between them varies.

Or, a lozenge gules

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 296v

cross of four lozenges

Volume III of William Berry's 1828 Encyclopædia Heraldica, Plate XXXII

A cross of lozenges is substantially different from a Russian Orthodox cross (April, 2009 LoAR).

A cross of four lozenges is significantly different from a cross couped and a Maltese cross (April, 1996 LoAR) and from a cross of mascles (June, 2003 LoAR).

A cross of lozenges drawn to resemble a mullet of four points may be in visual conflict with a compass star (November, 2004 LoAR).

A cross of lozenges is not significantly different from four lozenges in cross (October, 2004 LoAR).

Also see information on crosses made up of mascles and rustres.

a cross of four lozenges nowed at the center

Gules, a Cross of Toulouse Or.

BSB Cod.icon. 333, folio 13r

This arrangement was originally blazoned as a "cross alchee". It was reblazoned in the March, 2010 LoAR because, ". . .a cross 'alchee' does not seem to exist outside this submission and, therefore, is not reproducible." At the same time, the sovereigns observed, "The emblazon of her original armory has the lozenges elongated to center which is not significant for blazon purposes."

Also see information on crosses made up of mascles and rustres.

cross of five lozenges

Argent, a cross of five lozenges gules.

BnF ms. fr. 5230, folio 105

cross of five lozenges

Volume III of William Berry's 1828 Encyclopædia Heraldica, Plate XXXVI

A cross of lozenges is substantially different from a Russian Orthodox cross (April, 2009 LoAR) and significantly different from a cross of mascles (June, 2003 LoAR).

Also see information on crosses made up of mascles and rustres.

a mascle. . .conjoined in cross with four lozenges

Also see information on crosses made up of rustres.

cross of four mascles

four mascles conjoined in cross

Gules, seven mascles conjoined three, three, and one Or.

BSB Cod.icon. 291, folio 7v

cross of four mascles

Volume III of William Berry's 1828 Encyclopædia Heraldica, Plate XXXVI

A cross of mascles is significantly different from a cross of lozenges (June, 2003 LoAR).

Depending on how both are drawn in their registered or submitted emblazons, a cross of four mascles may not get a CD for type from a compass star. (November, 2004)

A cross of mascles pometty is a step from period practice (October, 2000 LoAR).

Also see information on crosses made up of lozenges and rustres.

four mascles conjoined in cross, pommetty at all joints

Gules, in bend three mascles ployé pomelly.

BSB Cod.icon. 390, folio 350

A cross of mascles pometty is a step from period practice (October, 2000 LoAR).

Also see information on crosses made up of lozenges and rustres.

cross of five mascles

Gules, seven mascles conjoined three, three, and one Or.

BSB Cod.icon. 291, folio 7v

Also see information on Bowen crosses and crosses made up of lozenges and rustres.

a mascle. . .interlaced with four mascles in cross

Also see information on crosses made up of lozenges and rustres.

a cross of four passion nails

Argent, three passion nails sable.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 245v

Note: Depending on how the nails are drawn, this cross may have a lot in common with a cross clechy and/or a cross barby.

a cross of four pheons points to center

a cross of four pheons conjoined at the points

four pheons conjoined in cross, barbs to center

in cross four pheons conjoined at the points

made with the image of a pheon on page 283 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

No difference is granted between a pheon and an arrowhead. (February, 2007 LoAR)

Note: This cross has a lot in common with a Maltese cross.

four piles, points conjoined in cross

Argent, three piles issuant from sinister chief and three from dexter base all conjoined at the points gules.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 296v

Note: This cross has a lot in common with a field gyronny of eight parts.

four piles conjoined in cross enarched gurgewise clockwise. . .fimbriated

Gyronny arrondi of six parts sable and argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 390, folio 217

Note: This cross has a lot in common with a field gyronny arrondi of eight parts and is reminiscent of a cross arrondi.

four quatrefoils saltirewise conjoined in cross, slips to center and crossed

Azure, three quatrefoils argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 291, folio 33r

based on the images of a trefoil and a quatrefoil on page 267 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

four rustres conjoined in cross

Also see information on crosses made up of lozenges and mascles.

a cross of four seaxes conjoined at the pommel

Gules, in pale three seaxes fesswise reversed Or.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 321r

made with the image of a seax from page 510 of James Parker's 1894 A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry

"The semicircular notch at the back of the blade is the distinguishing feature of a seax." (September, 1984 LoAR)

No difference is granted between a seax and any other type of sword (January, 1992 LoAR).

cross of four swords conjoined at the points

four swords in cross, points conjoined

cross of swords tips to center

Gules, in chevron issuant from sinister two swords conjoined at the tips argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 272, folio 134r

made with the image of a sword on page 286 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

A cross bottony or crosslet is not significantly different from a cross of four swords conjoined at the points (July, 2004). Further, introducing a little space between the points of four swords in cross, pommels outward, might not be enough to create a significant difference if they still give the overall impression of being a single cross (July, 2005 LoAR).

No difference is granted between different types of swords (including seaxes, one cross of which has been registered).

Also take note of the registered cross of swords conjoined to a saltire of oak leaves.

four swords in cross conjoined at the pommels

Azure, in pall three swords, pommels to center, proper, and on a chief Or a lion gules between two maunches ermine.

BSB Cod.icon. 291, folio 31r

made with the image of a sword on page 286 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

No difference is granted between different types of swords (including seaxes, one cross of which has been registered).

Also take note of the registered cross of swords conjoined to a saltire of oak leaves.

four Thor's hammers in cross, conjoined at the hafts

drawing of a Viking Age pendant featuring Thor's hammer (Mjöllnir) found at Mandemark, on the island of Møn, in what is now Denmark

page 36 of George Stephens' 1878 Thunor the Thunderer, Carved on a Scandinavian Font of About the Year 1000

Thor's hammer amulets are period artifacts, and the hammers are depicted in runic inscriptions.. . .Since the amulets are representations of hammers and tools are depicted in period armory, their use is not a step from period practice. (March, 2010 LoAR)

Note: This cross has a good deal in common with crosses potent.

a cross formed of six whitebased opals proper

This photo of a shaped and polished white-based opal taken by Ra'ike is available under a GNU Free Documentation License.

There are also a handful of registrations of eight charges conjoined, four of one type in cross and four of another in saltire. I'm not sure how they're conflict-checked against the above crosses of charges, but they certainly give a cross-like impression.

blazon inspiration / parallels S.C.A.-style emblazon rulings, precedents, and observations

four oak leaves in cross, stems to center. . .and four acorns in saltire, caps to center. . .all conjoined

Argent, four oak leaves conjoined in saltire vert.

Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek fol. 220, p. 741

Argent, issuant from a castle of two towers throughout in fess gules an oak sprig fructed proper.

BSB Cod.icon. 391, folio 176r

based on an unattributed drawing of a leaf of Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein on the "Waddington arboretum" website and the image of an acorn slipped on Plate VIII of William Berry's 1828 Encyclopædia Heraldica, Volume III

Also take note of the registered crosses of oak leaves.

four oak leaves conjoined in saltire stems to center. . .between four acorns conjoined in cross caps to center

Azure, three acorns proper and in chief a label of two points argent.

BSB Cod.icon., 392 d, folio 326v

based on the image of an acorn slipped on Plate VIII of William Berry's 1828 Encyclopædia Heraldica, Volume III, and an unattributed drawing of a leaf of Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein on the "Waddington arboretum" website

four swords in cross points to center . . .and four oak leaves in saltire stems to center all conjoined at the center point

Also see information on crosses of four swords.

four tulips. . .slipped in cross bases to center conjoined with four leaves in saltire bases to center

based on images of tulips on the Janice's Daycare website



On Crosses of Charges Overlapping at Their Middles

It's fairly common in period armorials for pairs of long, skinny charges to be crossed in saltire.

Sable, in saltire two trumpets Or.

BSB Cod.icon. 309, folio 29v

Or, in saltire two lion's jambes sable.

BSB Cod.icon. 277, folio 23r

Per pale Or and gules, in saltire two trees eradicated proper.

BSB Cod.icon 277, folio 47r

Azure, in saltire two shovels Or.

BSB Cod.icon. 309, folio 25v

They're almost always matching charges, which makes the whole arrangement symmetrical about a vertical axis. This is generally not the case when two charges are placed in cross, which may be why that arrangement is vanishingly rare. (I could find only two period emblazons containing such an arrangement, and they are both identified as showing the arms of the bishop of Brandenburg. Further; they, like the arms of many other bishops, feature white keys on a red background, and I find it likely that the unusual arrangement was used to difference them from otherwise similar arms.)

Gules, in cross a key palewise wards to chief and a key fesswise.

BSB Cod.icon. 333, folio 51r

Gules, in cross a key palewise wards to chief and a key fesswise reversed.

BSB Cod.icon. 333, folio 33r

Despite the scarcity of the practice in real medieval and Renaissance heraldry, the S.C.A. has registered a significant number of crosses composed of skinny things overlapped at the middle. Such arrangements aren't blazoned as crosses, but they can still cause visual conflicts with crosses if they resemble them too closely, and may at times be treated as single charges for the purposes of conflict-checking (as in the return in the February, 1999 LoAR of the badge submitted by the Barony of Andelcrag, for example). In respect to this, the June, 2013 LoAR observed that when two skinny charges are in cross, the combination is, ". . .considered a compact charge. Compact inanimate charges and long inanimate charges do not have comparable orientations."

In the table below, I've tried to list all such crosses that have been registered, along with information on any rulings and visual conflicts that might affect similar submissions in future. But it's entirely possible that I've missed something, so if you need to know everything there is to know about any cross or charge mentioned, you should check the precedents yourself.

Registered Crosses of Charges Overlapped at the Middle

blazon inspiration / parallel S.C.A.-style emblazon rulings, precedents, and observations

two arrows in cross. . ., the palewise arrow inverted

Azure, a sheaf of arrows inverted argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 292r

Also see crosses composed of an arrow and a bow, a spear and a longbow, and arrows and swords.

in cross an arrow inverted and an arrow reversed

Also see crosses composed of an arrow and a bow, a spear and a longbow, and arrows and swords.

Latin cross of bones

Azure, six bones fesswise two, two, and two and in chief a dog passant regardant Or.

BSB Cod.icon. 274, folio 129r

"In heraldry, a 'bone' is a generic long bone (e.g., femur)." (January, 1983 LoAR)

a bow palewise reversed and an arrow fesswise reversed in cross

Argent, a bow palewise reversed azure.

BSB Cod.icon. 310, folio 27v

Per bend argent and sable, an arrow inverted bendwise argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 246r

Note: This arrangement has a lot in common with a crossbow, and with a cross composed of a spear and a longbow.

Also see the registered crosses formed of arrows, arrows and swords, and a sword and a bow.

a cross of four cables fretted throughout

Azure, in saltire an annulet conjoined to four lengths of cable and in chief a coronet Or.

BSB Cod.icon. 279, folio 99r

made with elements adapted from the cross of cables on Plate XXXVI of William Berry's 1828 Encyclopædia Heraldica, Volume III

Also see information on crosses parted and fretted.

cross of chains couped

Azure, in saltire an annulet interlaced with the ends of four chains of three links argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 276, folio 74r

Only one of these has been registered. It was submitted under the blazon "nine annulets interlaced in cross," and it does have a lot in common with registered crosses of annulets. Given the way the sovereigns of arms reblazoned it, however, I must assume they saw it as two long things (chains) crossed in the middle rather than as nine short things (annulets) meeting at their ends, and have categorized it accordingly.

two millrinds in cross

Quarterly azure, a millrind Or and azure, a lion between six escallops in pale.

BSB Cod.icon. 291, folio 19v

Note: This cross was originally submitted under the blazon "a cross moline pierced," and it is indeed virtually indistinguishable from a cross moline nowy quadrate square-pierced.

three nails bound into the shape of a cross, one palewise, the others fesswise, points to center. . .bound with a cord

Per pale Or and argent, in saltire four nails sable.

BSB Cod.icon. 272, folio 67r

I have no idea why this is blazoned "points to center" when all of the points are toward the outside of the cross. But I have seen the registered emblazon, and the one I've provided is consistent with it.

a cross of four pallets fretted with four barrulets

Gules, four barrulets argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 274, folio 52r

Sable, a cross of four pallets fretted with four barrulets argent.

There are also registrations of crosses parted and fretted and triple-parted and fretted, which are equivalent to crosses of two pallets fretted with two barrulets and crosses of three pallets fretted with three barrulets, respectively.

a spear and a longbow interlaced in cross

Or, a man salient proper vested gules sustaining a spear proper.

BSB Cod.icon 392 d, folio 279v

Argent, a bear salient to sinister azure sustaining a longbow Or.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 71v

Note: This arrangement has a good deal in common with a crossbow, and with a cross composed of an arrow and a bow.

Also see the registered cross formed of a sword and a bow.

a spoon and a spoon fesswise reversed

Sable, in fess three scoops palewise pendant from a billet.

SGS Cod. Sang. 1084, folio 323

in cross a spoon and needle

Per bend Or and azure, on a bend argent fimbriated azure and gules three needles Or and in chief a bull stantant bendwise gules.

BSB Cod.icon. 277, folio 98r

in cross a spoon and a key fesswise reversed

Gules, a key palewise, wards to chief, argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 148r

in cross a staff raguly and a staff raguly reversed

Argent, in saltire two ragged staves azure.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 179v

Also see the cross composed of a staff and a sword.

four ragged staves fretted in cross

Gules, in fess three ragged staves palewise argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 278, folio 108r

Also see the cross composed of a staff and a sword.

a sword inverted surmounted by another fesswise forming a Latin cross

Sable, two swords proper in saltire between four fleurs-de-lys Or.

BSB Cod.icon. 291, folio 34r

based on the image of a sword on page 286 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

in cross a sword and a bow

Vert, a bow fesswise Or.

BSB Cod.icon. 390, page 905

made with the image of a sword on page 286 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

Also see registered crosses formed of a bow and an arrow and a spear and a longbow.

in cross a sword inverted surmounted by a lute fesswise reversed affronty

Gules, a viol bendwise proper.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 271v

a lute

detail from an image extracted from Sebastian Virdung's 1511 Musica Getutscht

made with the image of a sword on page 286 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

in cross a musical note and a sword reversed

detail from Missa Virgo parens Christi


made with the image of a sword on page 286 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

in cross a sword. . .and staff fesswise

made with the image of a sword on page 286 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

Also see crosses of ragged staves.

in cross a sword fesswise reversed. . .and a sickle inverted

Azure, three sickles proper.

BSB Cod.icon. 307, page 336

made with the image of a sword on page 286 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

in cross a sword inverted and an arrow

Per bend argent and sable, an arrow inverted bendwise argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 246r

made with the image of a sword on page 286 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

Also see crosses composed of arrows.

two swords inverted and two arrows fesswise fretted in cross

made with the image of a sword on page 286 of Arthur Charles Fox-Davies' 1909 A Complete Guide to Heraldry

two smith's tongs in cross handles interlaced

Per fess sable and Or, in chief a pair of tongs reversed argent.

BSB Cod.icon. 392 d, folio 221v




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You can see many of the illustrations above in their original contexts by clicking on them or on text in the notes below them. The cited manuscripts are:

BnF, ms. fr. 5230:
an armorial made in the 15th century, probably in Flanders, now in the collection of the National Library of France
Bod. MS 264:
a book containing three separate texts, that from which the above illustration was excerpted a version of the Romance of Alexander created in the Flemish workshop of Jehan de Grise between 1338 and 1341, now in the collection of the Bodleian Library at Oxford University.
BSB Cod.icon. 266 & 267:
books of arms of Roman pontifs and cardinals made in Italy in the 16th century, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod.icon. 270:
a book of arms of northern Italian cities and Milanese nobility made in Italy in the 16th century, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod.icon 272 & 273:
books of arms of the Venetian nobility made in Italy in the 16th century, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod.icon. 274:
a book of Venetian, Mantuan, Bolognese, Anconian, Urbinoan, and Perugian arms made in Italy in the 16th century, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod.icon. 275:
a book containing the arms of Paduan nobility, Ferraran impresa, and Pesaran arms made in Italy in the 16th century, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod.icon 276:
a book of arms of Veronese and Vicenzan nobility made in Italy in the 16th century, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod.icon. 277:
a book of Florentine arms made in Italy in the 16th century, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod.icon. 278:
a book of Luccan, Sienese, Pisan, Pistoian, Volterran, Arezzan, Cortonese, and Sansepolcran arms made in Italy in the 16th century, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod.icon. 279:
a book of Neapolitan and Genoese arms made in Italy in the 16th century, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod. icon. 290:
a book of arms of the counts, vicounts, etc. of Cataluna, Castille, and Portugal made in Spain in the15th-16th century, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod.icon. 291:
a book of English arms made in England in the middle of the 16th century, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod.icon. 307:
a collection of arms from various (predominantly German) lands made in Germany around 1600, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod.icon. 309:
a book of German arms made between 1475 and 1560, perhaps in southern Germany, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod.icon. 310:
an armorial made by Anton Tirol in southern Germany between the end of the 15th century and 1540, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod.icon. 333:
a large armorial containing arms of Holy Roman Emperors, European noble houses, popes, cardinals, bishops, and abbots, up to the time of Emperor Rudolf II and Pope Gregory XIII, made in southern Germany in 1583 and now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod.icon. 390:
an armorial of the Holy Roman Empire made by Stephen Brechtel in Nürnberg between 1554 and 1568, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod.icon. 391:
various armorials collected in a single volume in southern Germany (possibly Augsburg) around 1530, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
BSB Cod. icon. 392 d:
an armorial made in southern Germany in the first half of the 16th century, now in the collection of the Bavarian State Library
Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek fol. 220:
an armorial made in Southern Tirol in 1548 by Vigil Raber, now in the collection of the Duchess Anna Amalia Library
Missa Virgo parens Christi:
a musical score produced in the early 16th century as a gift for Pope Leo X
SGS Cod. Sang. 1084:
an armorial made by Hans Haggenberg for Ulrich Rösch, abbot of Saint Gall's, in the 15th century, now in the collection of the St. Gall abbey library